Political Appendix B Table of Biographical and Historical Data






Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

George Washington, 1st President (1789–1797)
Life
Birthdate: 22 February 1732
Birthplace: Westmoreland County, Va.
Parents: Augustine Washington, Mary Ball
Religion: Episcopalian
College Education: None
Wife: Martha Dandridge Custis
Date of Marriage: 6 January 1759
Children: None
Political Party: Nonpartisan but generally sympathetic to Federalist positions
Other Positions Held: Member, Virginia House of Burgesses (1759–1774)
  Member, Continental Congress (1774–1775)
  Commander, Continental Army (1775–1783)
Date of Inauguration: 30 April 1789
End of Term: 4 March 1797
Date of Death: 14 December 1799
Place of Death: Mount Vernon, Va.
Place of Burial: Mount Vernon, Va.
Elections
ELECTION OF 1789
Candidate Electoral Vote
George Washington 69
John Adams 34
Others 35
ELECTION OF 1792
Candidate Electoral Vote
George Washington 132
John Adams 77
George Clinton 50
Others 5
DID NOT RUN IN ELECTION OF 1796
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
1st Congress (1789–1791)
Senate: Fed. 17; Opposition 9
House: Fed. 38; Opposition 26
2d Congress (1791–1793)
Senate: Fed. 16; Dem.–Rep. 13
House: Dem.–Rep. 33; Fed. 37
3d Congress (1793–1795)
Senate: Fed. 17; Dem.–Rep. 13
House: Dem.–Rep. 57; Fed. 48
4th Congress (1795–1797)
Senate: Fed. 19; Dem.–Rep. 13
House: Fed. 54; Dem.–Rep. 52
Vice President
John Adams (1789–1797)
Appointments
Cabinet Members
Thomas Jefferson, secretary of state (1790–1793)
Edmund Randolph, secretary of state (1794–1795)
Timothy Pickering, secretary of state (1795–1797)
Alexander Hamilton, secretary of the treasury (1789–1795)
Oliver Wolcott, Jr., secretary of the treasury (1795–1797)
Henry Knox, secretary of war (1789–1794)
Timothy Pickering, secretary of war (1795)
James McHenry, secretary of war (1796–1797)
Edmund Randolph, attorney general (1789–1794)
William Bradford, attorney general (1794–1795)
Charles Lee, attorney general (1795–1797)
Supreme Court Appointments
John Jay, chief justice (1789–1795)
John Rutledge (1789–1791)
William Cushing (1789–1810)
James Wilson (1789–1798)
John Blair (1789–1796)
James Iredell (1790–1798)
Thomas Johnson (1791–1793)
William Paterson (1793–1806)
Samuel Chase (1796–1811)
Oliver Ellsworth, chief justice (1796–1799)
Key Events
1789 Establishment of Departments of State, War, and the Treasury and Office of the Attorney General; Federal Judiciary Act creates Supreme Court (24 Sept.).
1790 First U.S. census authorized (Mar.): population 3,929,214; Congress locates projected federal capital on Potomac (10 July) and authorizes building of a presidential residence (16 July); federal government assumes state Revolutionary War debts (4 Aug.).
1791 First Bank of the U.S. created (25 Feb.); Whiskey Tax passed (3 Mar.); Bill of Rights added to the Constitution (15 Dec.); plan of Federal City (Washington) laid out.
1792 U.S. Mint opens in Philadelphia; first U.S. political parties (Republican and Federalist) formed; cornerstone of White House laid (13 Oct.); Washington and John Adams reelected (5 Dec.).
1793 Washington issues Neutrality Proclamation (22 Apr.), warning Americans to avoid aiding either France or Great Britain in their war.
1794 Barbary states begin preying on American shipping; Neutrality Act (5 June) forbids enlisting in service of a foreign nation or fitting out foreign armed vessels); Whiskey Rebellion: protest by farmers objecting to whiskey tax, halted by state militias of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Massachusetts.
1795 Yazoo Land Fraud between Georgia legislators and 4 land companies for present–day Alabama and Mississippi; Pinckney's Treaty (27 Oct.) with Spain gives U.S. free navigation of Mississippi.
1796 Washington's Farewell Address (17 Sept.) warns against U.S. involvement in foreign disputes; Adams and Jefferson elected president and vice president (7 Dec.).

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

John Adams, 2nd President (1797–1801)
Life
Birthdate: 30 October 1735
Birthplace: Braintree (now Quincy), Mass.
Parents: John Adams, Susanna Boylston
Religion: Unitarian
College Education: Harvard College
Wife: Abigail Smith
Date of Marriage: 25 October 1764
Children: Abigail Amelia, John Quincy, Susanna, Charles, Thomas Boylston
  Political Party: Federalist
Other Positions Held: Member, Continental Congress (1774–1778)
  Minister to France (1778–1779)
  Minister to Great Britain (1785–1788)
  Vice President (1789–1797)
Date of Inauguration: 4 March 1797
End of Term: 4 March 1801
Date of Death: 4 July 1826
Place of Death: Quincy, Mass.
Place of Burial: Quincy, Mass.
Elections
ELECTION OF 1796
Candidate Party Electoral Vote
John Adams Fed. 71
Thomas Jefferson Dem.–Rep. 68
Thomas Pinckney Fed. 59
Aaron Burr Dem.–Rep. 30
DEFEATED IN ELECTION OF 1800 BY THOMAS JEFFERSON
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
5th Congress (1797–1799)
Senate: Fed. 20; Dem.–Rep. 12
House: Fed. 58; Dem.–Rep. 48
6th Congress (1799–1801)
Senate: Fed. 19; Dem.–Rep. 13
House: Fed. 64; Dem.–Rep. 42
Vice President
Thomas Jefferson (1797–1801)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
Timothy Pickering, secretary of state (1797–1800)
John Marshall, secretary of state (1800–1801)
Oliver Wolcott, Jr., secretary of the treasury (1797–1800)
Samuel Dexter, secretary of the treasury (1801)
James McHenry, secretary of war (1797–1800)
Samuel Dexter, secretary of war (1800–1801)
Roger Griswold, secretary of war (1801)
Charles Lee, attorney general (1797–1801)
Theophilus Parsons, attorney general (1801)
Benjamin Stoddert, secretary of the navy (1798–1801)
Supreme Court Appointments:
Bushrod Washington (1798–1829)
Alfred Moore (1799–1804)
John Marshall, chief justice (1801–1835)
Key Events
1797 XYZ Affair: 3 commissioners sent to France to negotiate commerce and amity treaty; Adams discloses to Congress (3 Apr. 1798) refusal of French foreign affairs secretary Talleyrand to receive commissioners unless a loan was granted France and a bribe paid.
1798 Eleventh Amendment prevents individual states from being sued without their consent (8 Jan.); Alien and Sedition Acts: Naturalization Act (18 June), Alien Act (6 July), Alien Enemies Act (6 July), and Sedition Act (14 July) impose severe restrictions on aliens; Kentucky (16 Nov. 1798, 22 Nov. 1799) and Virginia (24 Dec. 1798) resolutions protest Alien and Sedition Acts as unconstitutional and advocate state sovereignty; undeclared naval war ("Quasi–War") with France begins with French seizure of American merchantmen.
1799 Logan Act (30 Jan.) prohibits correspondence with enemy foreign nations; Fries's Rebellion: armed resistance by Pennsylvania farmers led by John Fries to protest federal tax on land and houses, put down by federal troops.
1800 U.S. population: 5,308,483 Harrison Land Act (10 May) facilitates individual land purchases; secret Treaty of San Ildefonso cedes Louisiana to France (1 Oct.); peace with France concluded by Convention of 1800 (30 Sept.); Adams moves into the still–unfinished White House (1 Nov.); Congress convenes in Washington, D.C., for first time (17 Nov.).
1801 John Marshall becomes Chief Justice of the Supreme Court (31 Jan.); House of Representatives chooses Thomas Jefferson over Aaron Burr for president (17 Feb.), the election of 1800 having resulted in a tie vote in the electoral college.

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

Thomas Jefferson, 3rd President (1801–1809)
Life
Birthdate: 13 April 1743
Birthplace: Goochland (now Albemarle) County, Va.
Parents: Peter Jefferson, Jane Randolph
Religion: Deism
College Education: College of William and Mary
Wife: Martha Wayles Skelton
Date of Marriage: 1 January 1772
Children: Martha, Maria, Lucy Elizabeth
Political Party: Democratic–Republican
Other Positions Held: Member, Virginia House of Burgesses (1769–1775)
  Member, Continental Congress (1775–1776; 1783–1785)
  Governor of Virginia (1779–1781)
  Secretary of State (1790–1793)
  Vice President (1797–1801)
  Rector, University of Virginia (1825–1826)
Date of Inauguration: 4 March 1801
End of Term: 4 March 1809
Date of Death: 4 July 1826
Place of Death: Charlottesville, Va.
Place of Burial: Charlottesville, Va.
Elections
ELECTION OF 1800
Candidate Party Electoral Vote
Thomas Jefferson Dem.–Rep. 73
Aaron Burr Dem.–Rep. 73
John Adams Fed. 65
Charles C. Pinckney Fed. 64
John Jay Fed. 1
ELECTION OF 1804
Candidate Party Electoral Vote
Thomas Jefferson Dem.–Rep. 162
Charles C. Pinckney Fed. 14
DID NOT RUN IN ELECTION OF 1808
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
7th Congress (1801–1803)
Senate: Dem.–Rep. 18; Fed. 13
House: Dem.–Rep. 69; Fed. 36
8th Congress (1803–1805)
Senate: Dem.–Rep. 25; Fed. 9
House: 102; Fed. 39
9th Congress (1805–1807)
Senate: Dem.–Rep. 27; Fed. 7
House: Dem.–Rep. 116; Fed. 25
10th Congress (1807–1809)
Senate: Dem.–Rep. 28; Fed. 6
House: Dem.–Rep. 118; Fed. 24
Vice Presidents
Aaron Burr (1801–1805)
George Clinton (1805–1809)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
James Madison, secretary of state (1801–1809)
Samuel Dexter, secretary of the treasury (1801)
Albert Gallatin, secretary of the treasury (1801–1809)
Henry Dearborn, secretary of war (1801–1809)
Levi Lincoln, attorney general (1801–1804)
Robert Smith, attorney general (1805)
John Breckenridge, attorney general (1805–1806)
Caesar A. Rodney, attorney general (1807–1809)
Benjamin Stoddert, secretary of the navy (1801)
Robert Smith, secretary of the navy (1801–1809)
Supreme Court Appointments:
William Johnson (1804–1834)
Henry Brockholst Livingston (1806–1823)
Thomas Todd (1807–1826)
Key Events
1801 Jefferson becomes first president inaugurated in Washington, D.C. (4 Mar.).
1803 Supreme Court, in Marbury v. Madison, for the first time declares a congressional act unconstitutional (24 Feb.); U.S. purchases Louisiana (828,000 sq. miles) from France (2 May) for $15 million; Meriwether Lewis and William Clark explore the Far West (through 1806).
1804 Alexander Hamilton dies (12 July) from wounds suffered in duel with Aaron Burr the day before; Twelfth Amendment specifies separate ballots for president and vice president in electoral college (25 Sept.).
1805 Essex decision by British admiralty destroys principle of broken voyage; British begin seizing U.S. ships carrying French and Spanish goods; impressment by British ships is increased.
1806 Burr Conspiracy: Gen. James Wilkinson warns Jefferson of Burr's expedition allegedly to build a western empire from Spanish territories; Burr arrested (19 Feb. 1807) and acquitted of treason (1 Sept. 1807).
1807 Non–Importation Act (14 Dec.) put into effect against Britain; Robert Fulton's Clermont inaugurates commercial steam navigation, Embargo Act (22 Dec.) forbids U.S. ships to leave for foreign countries.
1808 Importation of slaves forbidden (1 Jan.); Madison elected president (7 Dec.).
1809 Non–Intercourse Act (1 Mar.) bans trade with Great Britain and France; Embargo Act repealed.

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

James Madison, 4th President (1809–1817)
Life
Birthdate: 16 March 1751
Birthplace: Port Conway, Va.
Parents: James Madison, Nelly Conway
Religion: Episcopalian; deist
College Education: College of New Jersey, now Princeton University
Wife: Dolley Payne Todd
Date of Marriage: 15 September 1794
Children: None
Political Party: Democratic–Republican
Other Positions Held: Member, Virginia House of Delegates (1776–1780; 1784–1786; 1798–1800)
  Member, Continental Congress (1780–1783; 1787–1788)
  Delegate to Constitutional Convention (1787)
  Member, U.S. House of Representatives (1789–1797)
  Secretary of State (1801–1809)
  Rector, University of Virginia (1826–1836)
Date of Inauguration: 4 March 1809
End of Term: 4 March 1817
Date of Death: 28 June 1836
Place of Death: Montpelier, Va.
Place of Burial: Montpelier, Va.
Elections
ELECTION OF 1808
Candidate Party Electoral Vote
James Madison Dem.–Rep. 122
Charles C. Pinckney Fed. 47
George Clinton Dem.–Rep. 6
ELECTION OF 1812
Candidate Party Electoral Vote
James Madison Dem.–Rep. 128
DeWitt Clinton Fed. 89
DID NOT RUN IN ELECTION OF 1816
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
11th Congress (1809–1811)
Senate: Dem.–Rep. 28; Fed. 6
House: Dem.–Rep. 94; Fed. 48
12th Congress (1811–1813)
Senate: Dem.–Rep. 30; Fed. 6
House: Dem.–Rep. 108; Fed. 36
13th Congress (1813–1815)
Senate: Dem.–Rep. 27; Fed. 9
House: Dem.–Rep. 112; Fed. 68
14th Congress (1815–1817)
Senate: Dem.–Rep. 25; Fed. 11
House: Dem.–Rep. 117; Fed. 65
Vice Presidents
George Clinton (1809–1812)
Elbridge Gerry (1813–1814)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
Robert Smith, secretary of state (1809–1811)
James Monroe, secretary of state (1811–1817)
Albert Gallatin, secretary of the treasury (1809–1814)
George W. Campbell, secretary of the treasury (1814)
Alexander J. Dallas, secretary of the treasury (1814–1816)
William H. Crawford, secretary of the treasury (1816–1817)
William Eustis, secretary of war (1809–1812)
John Armstrong, secretary of war (1813–1814)
James Monroe, secretary of war (1814–1815)
William H. Crawford, secretary of war (1815–1816)
Caesar A. Rodney, attorney general (1809–1811)
William Pinkney, attorney general (1812–1814)
Richard Rush, attorney general (1814–1817)
Paul Hamilton, secretary of the navy (1809–1812)
William Jones, secretary of the navy (1813–1814)
Benjamin W. Crowninshield, secretary of the navy (1815–1817)
Supreme Court Appointments:
Joseph Story (1811–1845)
Gabriel Duvall (1812–1835)
Key Events
1810 U.S. population: 7,239,881; Rambouillet Decree signed by Napoleon, ordering seizure of U.S. shipping in French ports; Macon's Bill No. 2 passes (1 May) to supplant Non–Intercourse Act; Florida annexed (27 Oct.).
1811 Secret act passed (15 Jan.) authorizing president to take possession of East Florida.
1812 Congress enacts embargo on Great Britain (4 Apr.); Vice President Clinton dies in office (20 Apr.); president authorized to raise 100,000 militia for 3 months; U.S. declares war on Great Britain (18 June) over freedom of the seas, impressment of seamen, and blockade of U.S. ports, beginning War of 1812; Madison elected president (2 Dec.) for second term.
1813 Lord Castlereagh's proposal for peace negotiations reaches Washington (4 Nov.).
1814 White House burned down to its stone walls by the British (24 Aug.); Treaty of Ghent (24 Dec.) ends War of 1812; U.S. rights to Newfoundland fisheries acknowledged, boundary commissions established; Hartford Convention convenes (15 Dec.), at which 26 New England delegates hold secret sessions to consider a convention to revise U.S. Constitution concerning states' rights in national emergencies.
1816 Second Bank of United States established (10 Apr.); Monroe elected president (4 Dec.).

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

James Monroe, 5th President (1817–1825)
Life
Birthdate: 28 April 1758
Birthplace: Westmoreland County, Va.
Parents: Spence Monroe, Elizabeth Jones
Religion: Episcopalian
College Education: College of William and Mary
Wife: Elizabeth Kortright
Date of Marriage: 16 February 1786
Children: Eliza Kortright, Maria Hester
Political Party: Democratic–Republican
Other Positions Held: Member, Continental Congress (1783–1786)
  U.S. Senator (1790–1794)
  Minister to France (1794–1796)
  Governor of Virginia (1799–1802; 1811)
  Secretary of State (1811–1817)
  Secretary of War (1814–1815)
Date of Inauguration: 4 March 1817
End of Term: 3 March 1825
Date of Death: 4 July 1831
Place of Death: New York, N.Y.
Place of Burial: Richmond, Va.
Elections
ELECTION OF 1816
Candidate Party Electoral Vote
James Monroe Dem.–Rep. 183
Rufus King Fed. 34
ELECTION OF 1820
Candidate Party Electoral Vote
James Monroe Dem.–Rep. 231
John Quincy Adams Ind. 1
DID NOT RUN IN ELECTION OF 1824
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
15th Congress (1817–1819)
Senate: Dem.–Rep. 34; Fed. 10
House: Dem.–Rep. 141; Fed. 42
16th Congress (1819–1821)
Senate: Dem.–Rep. 35; Fed. 7
House: Dem.–Rep.156; Fed. 27
17th Congress (1821–1823)
Senate: Dem.–Rep. 44; Fed. 4
House: Dem.–Rep. 158; Fed. 25
18th Congress (1823–1825)
Senate: Dem.–Rep. 44; Fed. 4
House: Dem.–Rep. 187; Fed. 26
Vice President
Daniel D. Tompkins (1817–1825)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
John Quincy Adams, secretary of state (1817–1825)
William H. Crawford, secretary of the treasury (1817–1825)
George Graham, secretary of war (1817)
John C. Calhoun, secretary of war (1817–1825)
Richard Rush, attorney general (1817)
William Wirt, attorney general (1817–1825)
Benjamin W. Crowninshield, secretary of the navy (1817–1818)
Smith Thompson, secretary of the navy (1819–1823)
Samuel L. Southard, secretary of the navy (1823–1825)
Supreme Court Appointment:
Smith Thompson (1823–1843)
Key Events
1817 Rush–Bagot Agreement: an exchange of notes between the U.S. and Great Britain (28–29 Apr.) agreeing to limit naval power on the Great Lakes.
1818 Convention of 1818 (20 Oct.) gives U.S. citizens fishing rights off Newfoundland and establishes Northwest boundary.
1819 Panic of 1819: severe depression in which banks suspend specie payments and much western property turned over to Bank of the U.S.; Adams–On's Treaty (22 Feb.): Spain cedes Florida to U.S. along with claims to Pacific Northwest; McCullough v. Maryland: Supreme Court interprets implied powers of Congress (6 Mar.); Monroe becomes first president to ride on a steamboat (11 May).
1820 U.S. population: 9,638,453 Missouri Compromise (3 Mar.): Maine admitted to Union as free state, Missouri admitted with no restrictions on slavery.
1821 William Becknell outlines Santa Fe Trail; Monroe inaugurated for second term (5 Mar.)
1822 Bill signed by Monroe reorganizing Latin American republics (4 May).
1823 Monroe Doctrine (2 Dec.) lays down principles that European governments could not establish new colonies in Western Hemisphere and that interference in hemisphere internal affairs would be considered an act of aggression.
1824 Henry Clay coins term "American system" (30–31 Mar.), hoping to check decline of U.S. industry through internal improvements and creation of a home market.
1825 House of Representatives chooses John Quincy Adams as president (9 Feb.).

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

John Quincy Adams, 6th President (1825–1829)
Life
Birthdate: 11 July 1767
Birthplace: Braintree (now Quincy), Mass.
Parents: John Adams, Abigail Smith
Religion: Unitarian
College Education: Harvard College
Wife: Louisa Catherine Johnson
Date of Marriage: 26 July 1797
Children: George Washington, John, Charles Francis, Louisa Catherine
Political Party: Democratic–Republican
Other Positions Held: Minister to the Netherlands (1794–1796)
  Minister to Germany (1796–1801)
  U.S. Senator (1803–1808)
  Minister to Russia (1809–1814)
  Minister to Great Britain (1815–1817)
  Secretary of State (1817–1825)
  Member, U.S. House of Representatives (1831–1848)
Date of Inauguration: 4 March 1825
End of Term: 4 March 1829
Date of Death: 23 February 1848
Place of Death: Washington, D.C.
Place of Burial: Quincy, Mass.
Elections
ELECTION OF 1824
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
John Quincy Adams Dem.–Rep. 84 30.5%
Andrew Jackson Dem.–Rep. 99 43.9%
William H. Crawford Dem.–Rep. 41 13.1%
Henry Clay Dem.–Rep. 37 13.2%
(ADAMS CHOSEN PRESIDENT BY HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES IN THE ABSENCE OF A CANDIDATE WITH MORE THAN 50% OF THE POPULAR VOTE)
DEFEATED IN ELECTION OF 1828 BY ANDREW JACKSON
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
19th Congress (1825–1827)
Senate: Admin. 26; Jacksonians 20
House: Admin. 105; Jacksonians 97
20th Congress (1827–1829)
Senate: Jacksonians 28; Admin. 20
House: Jacksonians 119; Admin. 94
Vice President
John C. Calhoun (1825–1829)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
Henry Clay, secretary of state (1825–1829)
Richard Rush, secretary of the treasury (1825–1829)
James Barbour, secretary of war (1825–1828)
Peter B. Porter, secretary of war (1828–1829)
William Wirt, attorney general (1825–1829)
Samuel L. Southard, secretary of the navy (1825–1829)
Supreme Court Appointment:
Robert Trimble (1826–1828)
Key Events
1826 John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, only presidents who signed Declaration of Independence, both die on fiftieth anniversary of its adoption (4 July); Treaty of Washington: Creek Indians cede lands in Georgia and are removed beyond Mississippi (1827–1829).
1827 Supreme Court rules that president has the final authority to call out the militia ( Martin v. Mott ).
1828 Jackson elected president (3 Dec.); Tariff of Abominations passed (19 May); South Carolina Resolves adopted (19 Dec.) declaring Tariff of Abominations unjust and unconstitutional.

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

Andrew Jackson, 7th President (1829–1837)
Life
Birthdate: 15 March 1767
Birthplace: Waxhaw, S.C.
Parents: Andrew Jackson, Elizabeth Hutchinson
Religion: Presbyterian
College Education: None
Wife: Rachel Donelson Robards
Date of Marriage: August 1791
Child: Andrew (adopted)
Political Party: Democratic
Other Positions Held: Member, U.S. House of Representatives (1796–1797)
  U.S. Senator (1797–1798; 1823–1825)
  Judge, Tennessee Supreme Court (1798–1804)
  Major General, U.S. Army (1814–1821)
  Governor of Florida Territory (1821)
Date of Inauguration: 4 March 1829
End of Term: 4 March 1837
Date of Death: 8 June 1845
Place of Death: Nashville, Tenn.
Place of Burial: Nashville, Tenn.
Elections
ELECTION OF 1828
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
Andrew Jackson Dem. 178 56%
John Quincy Adams Nat. Rep. 83 44%
ELECTION OF 1832
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
Andrew Jackson Dem. 219 55%
Henry Clay Nat. Rep. 49 37%
William Wirt Anti–Masonic 7 8%
John Floyd Nat. Rep. 11 2%
DID NOT RUN IN ELECTION OF 1836
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
21st Congress (1829–1831)
Senate: Dem. 26; Nat. Rep. 22
House: Dem. 139; Nat. Rep. 74
22d Congress (1831–1833)
Senate: Dem. 25; Nat. Rep. 21; others 2
House: Dem. 141; Nat. Rep. 58; others 14
23d Congress (1833–1835)
Senate: Dem. 20; Nat. Rep. 20; others 8
House: Dem. 147; Anti–Masonic 53; others 60
24th Congress (1835–1837)
Senate: Dem. 27; Whig 25
House: Dem. 145; Whig 98
Vice Presidents
John C. Calhoun (1829–1832)
Martin Van Buren (1833–1837)
Appointments
Cabinet Members
Martin Van Buren, secretary of state (1829–1831)
Edward Livingston, secretary of state (1831–1833)
Louis McLane, secretary of state (1833–1834)
John Forsyth, secretary of state (1834–1837)
Samuel D. Ingham, secretary of the treasury (1829–1831)
Louis McLane, secretary of the treasury (1831–1833)
William J. Duane, secretary of the treasury (1833)
Roger B. Taney, secretary of the treasury (1833–1834)
Levi Woodbury, secretary of the treasury (1834–1837)
John H. Eaton, secretary of war (1829–1831)
Lewis Cass, secretary of war (1831–1836)
Benjamin F. Butler, secretary of war (1837)
John M. Berrien, attorney general (1829–1831)
Roger B. Taney, attorney general (1831–1833)
Benjamin F. Butler, attorney general (1833–1837)
William T. Barry, postmaster general (1829–1835)
Amos Kendall, postmaster general (1835–1837)
John Branch, secretary of the navy (1829–1831)
Levi Woodbury, secretary of the navy (1831–1834)
Mahlon Dickerson, secretary of the navy (1834–1837)
Supreme Court Appointments:
John McLean (1829–1861)
Henry Baldwin (1830–1844)
James M. Wayne (1835–1867)
Roger B. Taney, chief justice (1836–1864)
Philip P. Barbour (1836–1841)
John Catron (1837–1865)
Key Events
1829 Kitchen Cabinet, a small group of unofficial advisers, established by Jackson; postmaster general becomes Cabinet–level appointment.
1830 U.S. population: 12,866,020 Webster–Hayne Debate (19–27 Jan.) on interpretation of Constitution; Jackson escapes first assassination attempt on U.S. president (30 Jan.); Indian Removal Act passed (28 May), calling for resettlement of Indians west of Mississippi; north portico of White House completed.
1831 Cherokee Nation v. Georgia: appeal to Supreme Court by Cherokee to prevent Georgia from enforcing its laws in Cherokee nation, in which court rules Cherokee were not U.S. citizens or a foreign nation and the court lacked jurisdiction; Nat Turner's Rebellion (13–23 Aug.): insurrection by 100 blacks in Virginia, with 55 whites killed, and 20 blacks executed; French spoliation claims (4 July) made by U.S. citizens for losses sustained by French blockade of England.
1832 Bill to renew Bank of United States vetoed (10 July); South Carolina Nullification Ordinance (24 Nov.) nullifies tariffs acts of 1828 and 1832; Jackson issues proclamation (10 Dec.) asserting supremacy of federal government; Jackson elected for second term (5 Dec.).
1833 Force Act (2 Mar.) and a compromise tariff passed; South Carolina suspends ordinance of nullification (15 Mar.); piped running water replaces well water at White House (May).
1834 Bureau of Indian Affairs established (June) in Department of War.
1836 Texas settlers revolting against Mexican rule defeated at the siege of the Alamo (23 Feb.–6 Mar.), massacred at Goliad (27 Mar.), vanquish the Mexican army in Battle of San Jacinto (21 Apr.) under Sam Houston; Van Buren elected president (7 Dec.).
1837 Jackson reorganizes Republic of Texas (3 Mar.), following congressional resolutions (July 1836).

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

Martin Van Buren, 8th President (1837–1841)
Life
Birthdate: 5 December 1782
Birthplace: Kinderhook, N.Y.
Parents: Abraham Van Buren, Maria Hoes Van Alen
Religion: Dutch Reformed
College Education: None
Wife: Hannah Hoes
Date of Marriage: 21 February 1807
Children: Abraham, John, Martin, Smith Thompson
Political Party: Democratic
Other Positions Held: Attorney General of New York (1816–1819)
  U.S. Senator (1821–1828)
  Governor of New York (1829)
  Secretary of State (1829–1831)
  Vice President (1833–1837)
Date of Inauguration: 4 March 1837
End of Term: 4 March 1841
Date of Death: 24 July 1862
Place of Death: Kinderhook, N.Y.
Place of Burial: Kinderhook, N.Y.
Elections
ELECTION OF 1836
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
Martin Van Buren Dem. 170 50.9%
William H. Harrison Whig 73 36.6%
Others   51 12.4%
DEFEATED IN ELECTION OF 1840 BY WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
25th Congress (1837–1839)
Senate: Dem. 30; Whig 18; others 4
House: Dem. 108; Whig 107; others 24
26th Congress (1839–1841)
Senate: Dem. 28; Whig 22
House: Dem. 124; Whig 118
Vice President
Richard M. Johnson (1837–1841)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
John Forsyth, secretary of state (1837–1841)
Levi Woodbury, secretary of the treasury (1837–1841)
Joel R. Poinsett, secretary of war (1837–1841)
Benjamin F. Butler, attorney general (1837–1838)
Felix Grundy, attorney general (1838–1839)
Henry D. Gilpin, attorney general (1840–1841)
Amos Kendall, postmaster general (1837–1840)
John M. Niles, postmaster general (1840–1841)
Mahlon Dickerson, secretary of the navy (1837–1838)
James K. Paulding, secretary of the navy (1838–1841)
Supreme Court Appointments:
John McKinley (1837–1852)
Peter V. Daniel (1841–1860)
Key Events
1837 Van Buren's inauguration is first at which "Hail to the Chief" is played (4 Mar.); Panic of 1837 begins with suspension of specie payments by New York banks (May).
1838 Trail of Tears: forced journey of Cherokee from Georgia to Oklahoma, in which 4,000 Indians die.
1839 Helderberg War: New York State militia put down farmers rioting against leasehold system.
1840 U.S. population: 17,069,453

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

William Henry Harrison, 9th President (1841)
Life
Birthdate: 9 February 1773
Birthplace: Berkeley, Va.
Parents: Benjamin Harrison, Elizabeth Bassett
Religion: Episcopalian
College Education: Hampden–Sidney College
Wife: Anna Tuthill Symmes
Date of Marriage: 25 November 1795
Children: Elizabeth Bassett, John Cleves Symmes, Lucy Singleton, William Henry, John Scott, Benjamin, Mary Symmes, Carter Bassett, Anna Tuthill, James Findlay
Political Party: Whig
Other Positions Held: Governor of Indiana Territory (1800–1812)
  Brigadier General, U.S. Army (1812–1813)
  Major General, U.S. Army (1813–1814)
  Member, U.S. House of Representatives (1816–1819)
  U.S. Senator (1825–1828)
  Minister to Colombia (1828–1829)
Date of Inauguration: 4 March 1841
End of Term: 4 April 1841 (died in office)
Date of Death: 4 April 1841
Place of Death: Washington, D.C.
Place of Burial: North Bend, Ohio
Elections
ELECTION OF 1840
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
William H. Harrison Whig 234 52.8%
Martin Van Buren Dem. 60 46.8%
James G. Birney Liberty 0 0.3%
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
27th Congress (1841–1843)
Senate: Whig 28; Dem. 22; others 2
House: Whig 133; Dem. 102; others 6
Vice President
John Tyler (1841)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
Daniel Webster, secretary of state (1841)
Thomas Ewing, secretary of the treasury (1841)
John Bell, secretary of war (1841)
John J. Crittenden, attorney general (1841)
Francis Granger, postmaster general (1841)
George E. Badger, secretary of the navy (1841)
Supreme Court Appointments:
None
Key Event
1841 Harrison becomes first president to die in office (4 Apr.).

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

John Tyler, 10th President (1841–1845)
Life
Birthdate: 29 March 1790
Birthplace: Charles City County, Va.
Parents: John Tyler, Mary Marot Armistead Tyler
Religion: Episcopalian
College Education: College of William and Mary
First Wife: Letitia Christian (died 1842)
Date of First Marriage: 29 March 1813
Children from First Marriage: Mary, Robert, John, Letitia, Elizabeth, Anne Contesse, Alice, Tazewell
Second Wife: Julia Gardiner
Date of Second Marriage: 26 June 1844
Children from Second Marriage: David Gardiner, John Alexander, Julia, Lachlan, Lyon Gardiner, Robert Fitzwalter, Pearl
Political Party: Whig
Other Positions Held: Member, U.S. House of Representatives (1817–1821)
  Governor of Virginia (1825–1827)
  U.S. Senator (1827–1836)
  Vice President (1841)
  Chairman, Washington Peace Conference (1861)
Date of Inauguration: 6 April 1841 (succeeded to presidency on death of William Henry Harrison)
End of Term: 4 March 1845
Date of Death: 18 January 1862
Place of Death: Richmond, Va.
Place of Burial: Richmond, Va.
Elections
DID NOT RUN IN ELECTION OF 1844
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
27th Congress (1841–1843)
Senate: Whig 28; Dem. 22; others 2
House: Whig 133; Dem. 102; others 6
28th Congress (1843–1845)
Senate: Whig 28; Dem. 25; other 1
House: Dem. 142; Whig 79; other 1
Vice President
None
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
Daniel Webster, secretary of state (1841–1843)
Abel P. Upshur, secretary of state (1843–1844)
John C. Calhoun, secretary of state (1844–1845)
Thomas Ewing, secretary of the treasury (1841)
Walter Forward, secretary of the treasury (1841–1843)
John C. Spencer, secretary of the treasury (1843–1844)
George M. Bibb, secretary of the treasury (1844–1845)
John Bell, secretary of war (1841)
John McLean, secretary of war (1841)
John C. Spencer, secretary of war (1841–1843)
James M. Porter, secretary of war (1843–1844)
William Wilkins, secretary of war (1844–1845)
John J. Crittenden, attorney general (1841)
Hugh S. Legaré, attorney general (1841–1843)
John Nelson, attorney general (1843–1845)
Francis Granger, postmaster general (1841)
Charles A. Wickliffe, postmaster general (1841–1845)
George E. Badger, secretary of the navy (1841)
Abel P. Upshur, secretary of the navy (1841–1843)
David Henshaw, secretary of the navy (1843–1844)
Thomas W. Gilmer, secretary of the navy (1844)
John Y. Mason, secretary of the navy (1844–1845)
Supreme Court Appointment:
Samuel Nelson (1845–1872)
Key Events
1841 Tyler becomes first president to come into office upon the death of a president (4 Apr.) and is first president to arrive in Washington by railroad for inauguration; Dorr's Rebellion: President Tyler offers military assistance to Rhode Island governor against malcontents led by Thomas W. Dorr protesting suffrage limitations; state militia quells rebellion (1842).
1842 Webster–Ashburton Treaty (9 Aug.): settles northeastern boundary dispute with England.
1844 Texas annexation treaty signed (12 Apr.); Treaty of Wanghia (3 July) opens 5 Chinese ports to U.S. ships; election of Polk (5 Nov.), whose nomination is first to be reported by telegraph.

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

James K. Polk, 11th President (1845–1849)
Life
Birthdate: 2 November 1795
Birthplace: Mecklenburg County, N.C.
Parents: Samuel Polk, Jane Knox
Religion: Presbyterian
College Education: University of North Carolina
Wife: Sarah Childress
Date of Marriage: 1 January 1824
Children: None
Political Party: Democratic
Other Positions Held: Member, U.S. House of Representatives (1825–1839; Speaker, 1835–1839)
  Governor of Tennessee (1839–1841)
Date of Inauguration: 4 March 1845
End of Term: 4 March 1849
Date of Death: 15 June 1849
Place of Death: Nashville, Tenn.
Place of Burial: Nashville, Tenn.
Elections
ELECTION OF 1844
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
James K. Polk Dem. 170 49.6%
Henry Clay Whig 105 48.1%
James G. Birney Liberty 0 2.3%
DID NOT RUN IN ELECTION OF 1848
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
29th Congress (1845–1847)
Senate: Dem. 31; Whig 25
House: Dem. 143; Whig 77; others 6
30th Congress (1847–1849)
Senate: Dem. 36; Whig 21; other 1
House: Whig 115; Dem. 108; others 4
Vice President
George Mifflin Dallas (1845–1849)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
James Buchanan, secretary of state (1845–1849)
Robert J. Walker, secretary of the treasury (1845–1849)
William L. Marcy, secretary of war (1845–1849)
John Y. Mason, attorney general (1845–1846)
Nathan Clifford, attorney general (1846–1848)
Isaac Toucey, attorney general (1848–1849)
Cave Johnson, postmaster general (1845–1849)
George Bancroft, secretary of the navy (1845–1846)
John Y. Mason, secretary of the navy (1846–1849)
Supreme Court Appointments:
Levi Woodbury (1845–1851)
Robert C. Grier (1846–1870)
Key Events
1846 Mexican War: United States declares war (11 May); orders Gen. Zachary Taylor to Rio Grande (28 May) to defend Texas; treaty with Great Britain passes Senate (18 June) and establishes Oregon boundary; central hot–air heating installed in White House.
1848 Gold discovered in California (24 Jan.), Mexican War ends with Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (2 Feb.); California gold rush begins; White House illuminated by gaslight for the first time; Seneca Falls convention for women's rights (19–20 July); Taylor elected president (4 Dec.).
1849 Department of Interior established (3 Mar.).

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

Zachary Taylor, 12th President (1849–1850)
Life
Birthdate: 24 November 1784
Birthplace: Orange County, Va.
Parents: Richard Taylor, Sarah Dabney Strother
Religion: Episcopalian
College Education: None
Wife: Margaret Mackall Smith
Date of Marriage: 21 June 1810
Children: Anne Margaret Mackall, Sarah Knox, Octavia Pannill, Margaret Smith, Mary Elizabeth, Richard
Political Party: Whig
Other Positions Held: Brigadier General, U.S. Army (1838–1846)
  Major General, U.S. Army (1846–1849)
Date of Inauguration: 4 March 1849
End of Term: 9 July 1850 (died in office)
Date of Death: 9 July 1850
Place of Death: Washington, D.C.
Place of Burial: Jefferson County, Ky.
Elections
ELECTION OF 1848
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
Zachary Taylor Whig 163 47.4%
Lewis Call Dem. 127 42.5%
Martin Van Buren Free–Soil 0 10.1%
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
31st Congress (1849–1851)
Senate: Dem. 35; Whig 25; others 2
House: Dem. 112; Whig 109; others 9
Vice President
Millard Fillmore (1849–1850)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
James Buchanan, secretary of state (1849)
John M. Clayton, secretary of state (1849–1850)
William M. Meredith, secretary of the treasury (1849–1850)
George W. Crawford, secretary of war (1849–1850)
Reverdy Johnson, attorney general (1849–1850)
Jacob Collamer, postmaster general (1849–1850)
William B. Preston, secretary of the navy (1849–1850)
Thomas Ewing, secretary of the interior (1849–1850)
Supreme Court Appointments:
None
Key Events
1850 U.S. population: 23,191,876 Clayton–Bulwer Treaty (19 Apr.) calls for joint U.S.–British control of a canal across Central American isthmus; Nashville Convention (10 June) affirms legality of slavery by southern states; Taylor becomes second president to die in office (9 July).

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

Millard Fillmore, 13th President (1850–1853)
Life
Birthdate: 7 January 1800
Birthplace: Cayuga County, N.Y.
Parents: Nathaniel Fillmore, Phoebe Millard
Religion: Unitarian
College Education: None
First Wife: Abigail Powers (died 1853)
Date of First Marriage: 5 February 1826
Children from First Marriage: Millard Powers, Mary Abigail
Second Wife: Caroline Carmichael McIntosh
Date of Second Marriage: 10 February 1858
Children from Second Marriage: None
Political Party: Whig
Other Positions Held: Member, U.S. House of Representatives (1833–1835; 1837–1843)
  Vice President (1849–1850)
Date of Inauguration: 10 July 1850 (succeeded to presidency on death of Zachary Taylor)
End of Term: 3 March 1853
Date of Death: 8 March 1874
Place of Death: Buffalo, N.Y.
Place of Burial: Buffalo, N.Y.
Elections
DID NOT RUN IN ELECTION OF 1852
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
32d Congress (1851–1853)
Senate: Dem. 35; Whig 24; others 3
House: Dem. 140; Whig 88; others 5
Vice President
None
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
John M. Clayton, secretary of state (1850)
Daniel Webster, secretary of state (1850–1852)
Edward Everett, secretary of state (1852–1853)
William M. Meredith, secretary of the treasury (1850)
Thomas Corwin, secretary of the treasury (1850–1853)
George W. Crawford, secretary of war (1850)
Charles M. Conrad, secretary of war (1850–1853)
John J. Crittenden, attorney general (1850–1853)
Nathan K. Hall, postmaster general (1850–1852)
Samuel D. Hubbard, postmaster general (1850–1852)
William A. Graham, secretary of the navy (1850–1852)
John P. Kennedy, secretary of the navy (1852–1853)
Thomas M. T. McKennan, secretary of the interior (1850)
Alex H. H. Stuart, secretary of the interior (1850–1853)
Supreme Court Appointment:
Benjamin R. Curtis (1851–1857)
Key Events
1850 ompromise of 1850 (Sept.): 5 statutes admitting California as a free state, Texas and New Mexico with no restrictions, and including Fugitive Slave Act (18 Sept.), placing fugitive slave cases under federal jurisdiction.
1851 Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe published (20 Mar.); Pierce elected president (2 Nov.).
1852 ommodore Matthew C. Perry leaves on expedition to "open" Japan (Nov.)

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

Franklin Pierce, 14th President (1853–1857)
Life
Birthdate: 23 November 1804
Birthplace: Hillsborough (now Hillsboro), N.H.
Parents: Benjamin Pierce, Anna Kendrick
Religion: Episcopalian
College Education: Bowdoin College
Wife: Jane Means Appleton
Date of Marriage: 19 November 1834
Children: Franklin, Frank Robert, Benjamin
Political Party: Democratic
Other Positions Held: Member, New Hampshire legislature (1829–1833; Speaker, 1831–1832)
  Member, U.S. House of Representatives (1833–1837)
  U.S. Senator (1837–1842)
  Brigadier General, U.S. Army (1847)
Date of Inauguration: 4 March 1853
End of Term: 4 March 1857
Date of Death: 8 October 1869
Place of Death: Concord, N.H.
Place of Burial: Concord, N.H.
Elections
ELECTION OF 1852
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
Franklin Pierce Dem. 254 50.9%
Winfield Scott Whig 42 44.1%
John P. Hale Free–Soil 0 5%
DID NOT RUN IN ELECTION OF 1856
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
33d Congress (1853–1855)
Senate: Dem. 38; Whig 22; others 2
House: Dem. 159; Whig 71; others 4
34th Congress (1855–1857)
Senate: Dem. 40; Rep. 15; others 5
House: Rep. 108; Dem. 83; others 43
Vice President
William Rufus D. King (1853)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
William L. Marcy, secretary of state (1853–1857)
James Guthrie, secretary of the treasury (1853–1857)
Jefferson Davis, secretary of war (1853–1857)
Caleb Cushing, attorney general (1853–1857)
James Campbell, postmaster general (1853–1857)
James C. Dobbin, secretary of the navy (1853–1857)
Robert McClelland, secretary of the interior (1853–1857)
Supreme Court Appointment:
John A. Campbell (1853–1861)
Key Events
1853 Gadsden Purchase (30 Dec.): settles boundary question with Mexico for $10 million; first convenient bathing facilities installed in White House living quarters.
1854 Kansas–Nebraska Act passed (30 May) permitting local option on slavery and repealing Missouri Compromise; Canadian Reciprocity Treaty (5 June) opens U.S. markets to Canada and grants U.S. fishing rights.
1856 Kansas Civil War (21 May–15 Sept.): between proslavery and antislavery forces; Buchanan elected president (4 Nov.)

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

James Buchanan, 15th President (1857–1861)
Life
Birthdate: 23 April 1791
Birthplace: Stony Batter, Pa.
Parents: James Buchanan, Elizabeth Speer
Religion: Presbyterian
College Education: Dickinson College
Marital Status: Never married
Political Party: Democratic
Other Positions Held: Member, U.S. House of Representatives (1821–1831)
  Minister to Russia (1832–1834)
  U.S. Senator (1834–1845)
  Secretary of State (1845–1849)
  Minister to Great Britain (1853–1856)
Date of Inauguration: 4 March 1857
End of Term: 4 March 1861
Date of Death: 1 June 1868
Place of Death: Lancaster, Pa.
Place of Burial: Lancaster, Pa.
Elections
ELECTION OF 1856
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
James Buchanan Dem. 174 45.3%
John C. Frémont Rep. 114 33.1%
Millard Fillmore Know–Nothing 8 21.6%
DID NOT RUN IN ELECTION OF 1860
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
35th Congress (1857–1859)
Senate: Dem. 36; Rep. 20; others 8
House: Dem.118; Rep. 92; others 26
36th Congress (1859–1861)
Senate: Dem. 36; Rep. 26; others 4
House: Rep. 114; Dem. 92; others 31
Vice President
John C. Breckinridge (1857–1861)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
Lewis Cass, secretary of state (1857–1860)
Jeremiah S. Black, secretary of state (1860–1861)
Howell Cobb, secretary of the treasury (1857–1860)
Philip F. Thomas, secretary of the treasury (1860–1861)
John A. Dix, secretary of the treasury (1861)
John B. Floyd, secretary of war (1857–1860)
Joseph Holt, secretary of war (1861)
Jeremiah S. Black, attorney general (1857–1860)
Edwin M. Stanton, attorney general (1860–1861)
Aaron V. Brown, postmaster general (1857–1859)
Joseph Holt, postmaster general (1859–1861)
Horatio King, postmaster general (1861)
Isaac Toucey, secretary of the navy (1857–1861)
Jacob Thompson, secretary of the interior (1857–1861)
Supreme Court Appointment:
Nathan Clifford (1858–1881)
Key Events
1857 Dred Scott Case (6 Mar.): Supreme Court rules slaves are not U.S. citizens and cannot sue in federal courts; Panic of 1857 follows boom after Mexican War.
1858 Lincoln delivers "House Divided" speech (16 June); Lincoln–Douglas Debates (21 Aug.–15 Oct.).
1859 John Brown's Raid (16–18 Oct.): Brown seizes Harper's Ferry, Va., armory; captured by marine force under Col. Robert E. Lee; hanged for treason (2 Dec.); Comstock Lode of silver deposits discovered in Virginia City, Nev.
1860 U.S. population: 31,443,321 Davis Resolutions (2 Feb.): Jefferson Davis introduces in Senate slavery resolutions; Lincoln delivers Cooper Union speech (27 Feb.) on extension of slavery and popular sovereignty doctrine; Lincoln elected president (6 Nov.); South Carolina secedes from the Union (20 Dec.).
1861 Confederate States of America formed at Montgomery, Ala. (8 Feb.), and adopts constitution.

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

Abraham Lincoln, 16th President (1861–1865)
Life
Birthdate: 12 February 1809
Birthplace: Hodgenville, Ky.
Parents: Thomas Lincoln, Nancy Hanks
Religion: No denomination
College Education: None
Wife: Mary Todd
Date of Marriage: 4 November 1842
Children: Robert Todd, Edward Baker, William Wallace,Thomas ("Tad")
Political Party: Republican
Other Positions Held: Member, Illinois legislature (1834–1841)
  Member, U.S. House of Representatives (1847–1849)
Date of Inauguration: 4 March 1861
End of Term: 15 April 1865 (assassinated by John Wilkes Booth)
Date of Death: 15 April 1865
Place of Death: Washington, D.C.
Place of Burial: Springfield, Ill.
Elections
ELECTION OF 1860
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
Abraham Lincoln Rep. 180 39.8%
Stephen A. Douglas Dem. 12 29.5%
John C. Breckinridge Dem. 72 18.1%
John Bell Constitutional Union 39 12.6%
ELECTION OF 1864
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
Abraham Lincoln Rep. 212 55%
George B. McClellan Dem. 21 45%
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
37th Congress (1861–1863)
Senate: Rep. 31; Dem. 10; others 8
House: Rep. 105; Dem. 43; others 30
38th Congress (1863–1865)
Senate: Rep. 36; Dem. 9; others 5
House: Rep. 102; Dem. 75; others 9
Vice Presidents
Hannibal Hamlin (1861–1865)
Andrew Johnson (1865)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
William H. Seward, secretary of state (1861–1865)
Salmon P. Chase, secretary of the treasury (1861–1864)
William P. Fessenden, secretary of the treasury (1864–1865)
Hugh McCullough, secretary of the treasury (1865)
Simon Cameron, secretary of war (1861–1862)
Edwin M. Stanton, secretary of war (1862–1865)
Edward Bates, attorney general (1861–1863)
James Speed, attorney general (1864–1865)
Montgomery Blair, postmaster general (1861–1864)
William Dennison, postmaster general (1864–1865)
Gideon Welles, secretary of the navy (1861–1865)
Caleb B. Smith, secretary of the interior (1861–1862)
John P. Usher, secretary of the interior (1863–1865)
Supreme Court Appointments:
Noah H. Swayne (1862–1881)
Samuel F. Miller (1862–1890)
David Davis (1862–1877)
Stephen J. Field (1863–1897)
Salmon P. Chase, chief justice (1864–1873)
Key Events
1861 Civil War begins with Confederate firing on Fort Sumter, S.C. (12 Apr.), and surrender of fort; Congress institutes income tax; Committee on Conduct of the War established (20 Dec.).
1862 Department of Agriculture established as federal agency (15 May); Homestead Act enacted (20 May), providing for citizens to acquire 160 acres of public land.
1863 Emancipation Proclamation (1 Jan.) grants freedom to slaves in rebelling states; antidraft riots in New York City (13–16 July).
1865 Confederate surrender to Union forces at Appomattox Courthouse (9 Apr.) ends Civil War; Lincoln assassinated (14 Apr.) by John Wilkes Booth.

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

Andrew Johnson, 17th President (1865–1869)
Life
Birthdate: 29 December 1808
Birthplace: Raleigh, N.C.
Parents: Jacob Johnson, Mary McDonough
Religion: No denomination
College Education: None
Wife: Eliza McCardle
Date of Marriage: 17 May 1827
Children: Martha, Charles, Mary, Robert, Andrew
Political Party: Democratic (elected vice president on Republican ticket)
Other Positions Held: Member, U.S. House of Representatives (1843–1853)
  Governor of Tennessee (1853–1857)
  U.S. Senator (1857–1862; 1875)
  Brigadier General, U.S. Army (1862–1864)
  Vice President (1865)
Date of Inauguration: 15 April 1865 (succeeded to presidency on death of Abraham Lincoln)
Acquittal of Impeachment Charges: 26 May 1868
End of Term: 4 March 1869
Date of Death: 31 July 1875
Place of Death: Carter's Station, Tenn.
Place of Burial: Greenville, Tenn.
Elections
DID NOT RUN IN ELECTION OF 1868
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
39th Congress (1865–1867)
Senate: Unionists 42; Dem. 10
House: Unionists 149; Dem. 42
40th Congress (1867–1869)
Senate: Rep. 42; Dem. 11
House: Rep. 143; Dem. 49
Vice President
None
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
William H. Seward, secretary of state (1865–1869)
Hugh McCullough, secretary of the treasury (1865–1869)
Edwin M. Stanton, secretary of war (1865–1868)
John M. Schofield, secretary of war (1868–1869)
James Speed, attorney general (1865–1866)
Henry Stanbery, attorney general (1866–1868)
William M. Evarts, attorney general (1868–1869)
William Dennison, postmaster general (1865–1866)
Alexander W. Randall, postmaster general (1866–1869)
Gideon Welles, secretary of the navy (1865–1869)
John P. Usher, secretary of the interior (1865)
James Harlan, secretary of the interior (1865–1866)
Orville H. Browning, secretary of the interior (1866–1869)
Supreme Court Appointments:
None
Key Events
1865 Johnson is first president to come into office upon assassination of a president (15 Apr.); Reconstruction Proclamation (29 May–13 July) grants amnesty to Confederates who took oath of allegiance; Freedmen's bureau established (24 Nov.); Thirteenth Amendment ratified (18 Dec.) abolishing slavery; Ku Klux Klan established in Pulaski, Tenn.
1866 Supplementary Reconstruction Acts passed (23 Mar., 19 July), providing for registration of all qualified voters; U.S. agrees to purchase Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million (29 Mar.); Civil Rights Act (9 Apr.) bestows citizenship on blacks; Fourteenth Amendment submitted to states (16 June) for ratification, defines national citizenship, ratification necessary for states to be readmitted to Union; Patrons of Husbandry (Grangers) formed (4 Dec.) to promote agricultural interests; White House acquires a telegraph room.
1867 First Reconstruction Act (2 Mar.) divides South into 5 military districts subject to martial law and under military commanders.
1868 Impeachment trial of Johnson (24 Feb.–26 May): president impeached for removal of Stanton as secretary of war as violation of Tenure of Office Act (2 Mar. 1867), president acquitted; Fourteenth Amendment ratified (28 July); first federal 8–hour workday enacted; Grant elected president (3 Nov.).

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

Ulysses Simpson Grant, 18th President (1869–1877)
Life
Birthdate: 27 April 1822
Birthplace: Point Pleasant, Ohio
Parents: Jesse Root Grant, Hannah Simpson
Religion: Methodist
College Education: United States Military Academy
Wife: Julia Boggs Dent
Date of Marriage: 22 August 1848
Children: Frederick Dent, Ulysses Simpson, Ellen Wrenshall, Jesse Root
Political Party: Republican
Other Positions Held: Major General, U.S. Army (1862–1864)
  Lieutenant General, U.S. Army (1864–1866)
  General of the Army (1866)
Date of Inauguration: 4 March 1869
End of Term: 4 March 1877
Date of Death: 23 July 1885
Place of Death: Mount McGregor, N.Y.
Place of Burial: New York, N.Y.
Elections
ELECTION OF 1868
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
Ulysses S. Grant Rep. 214 52.7%
Horatio Seymour Dem. 80 47.3%
ELECTION OF 1872
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
Ulysses S. Grant Rep. 286 55.6%
Horace Greeley Dem. N/A 43.9%
(GREELEY DIED BETWEEN GENERAL ELECTION AND MEETING OF ELECTORAL COLLEGE)
DID NOT RUN IN ELECTION OF 1876
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
41st Congress (1869–1871)
Senate: Rep. 56; Dem. 11
House: Rep. 149; Dem. 63
42d Congress (1871–1873)
Senate: Rep. 52; Dem. 17; others 5
House: Rep. 134; Dem. 104; others 5
43d Congress (1873–1875)
Senate: Rep. 49; Dem. 19; others 5
House: Rep. 194; Dem. 92; others 14
44th Congress (1875–1877)
Senate: Rep. 45; Dem. 29; others 2
House: Dem. 169; Rep. 109; others 14
Vice Presidents
Schuyler Colfax (1869–1873)
Henry Wilson (1873–1875)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
Elihu B. Washburne, secretary of state (1869)
Hamilton Fish, secretary of state (1869–1877)
George S. Boutwell, secretary of the treasury (1869–1873)
William A. Richardson, secretary of the treasury (1873–1874)
Benjamin H. Bristow, secretary of the treasury (1874–1876)
Lot M. Morrill, secretary of the treasury (1876–1877)
John A. Rawlins, secretary of war (1869)
William Tecumseh Sherman, secretary of war (1869)
William W. Belknap, secretary of war (1869–1876)
Alphonso Taft, secretary of war (1876)
James D. Cameron, secretary of war (1876–1877)
E. Rockwood Hoar, attorney general (1869–1870)
Amos T. Akerman, attorney general (1870–1871)
George H. Williams, attorney general (1871–1875)
Edwards Pierrepont, attorney general (1875–1876)
Alphonso Taft, attorney general (1876–1877)
John A. Creswell, postmaster general (1869–1874)
James W. Marshall, postmaster general (1874)
Marshall Jewell, postmaster general (1874–1876)
James N. Tyner, postmaster general (1876–1877)
Adolph E. Borie, secretary of the navy (1869)
George M. Robeson, secretary of the navy (1869–1877)
Jacob D. Cox, secretary of the interior (1869–1870)
Columbus Delano, secretary of the interior (1870–1875)
Zachariah Chandler, secretary of the interior (1875–1877)
Supreme Court Appointments:
William Strong (1870–1880)
Joseph P. Bradley (1870–1892)
Ward Hunt (1873–1882)
Morrison R. Waite, chief justice (1874–1888)
Key Events
1869 First transcontinental rail route completed (10 May); Black Friday (24 Sept.), an attempt by James Fisk, Jay Gould, and others to corner the U.S. gold supply.
1870 U.S. population: 39,818,449 Fifteenth Amendment ratified (30 Mar.), stating no citizen can be denied right to vote because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude; Justice Department created (22 June), headed by attorney general.
1871 Enforcement Acts provide federal election law (28 Feb.) and enforcement of Fourteenth Amendment (20 Apr.); Indian Appropriation Act decrees the federal government would not enter into any further Indian treaties; Civil Service Commission established (3 Mar.); Ku Klux Klan Act passes (20 Apr.) to enforce Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments and permit president to declare martial law; Treaty of Washington (8 May) between U.S. and Britain lays down rules of maritime neutrality and submits Alabama Claims to arbitration (settled 14 Sept. 1872); Chicago Fire (8 Oct.) destroys 17,500 buildings, causes $200 million in property loss, and leaves 200-300 dead.
1872 Equal Rights party nominates first woman, Victoria Claflin Woodhull, for president and first black, Frederick Douglass, for vice president (10 May); Crédit Mobilier scandal erupts; Grant reelected (5 Nov.).
1873 Panic of 1873 in which 5,000 businesses fail; Coinage Act (12 Feb.) establishes gold standard.
1875 Whiskey Ring conspiracy of revenue officials to defraud government of internal revenue tax.
1876 Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone; Secretary of War Belknap impeached for receiving bribes for sale of Indian posts.

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

Rutherford Birchard Hayes, 19th President (1877–1881)
Life
Birthdate: 4 October 1822
Birthplace: Delaware, Ohio
Parents: Rutherford Hayes, Sophia Birchard
Religion: Attended Methodist Church
College Education: Kenyon College; Harvard Law School
Wife: Lucy Ware Webb
Date of Marriage: 30 December 1852
Children: Birchard Austin, James Webb Cook, Rutherford Platt, Joseph Thompson, George Crook, Fanny, Scott Russell, Manning Force
Political Party: Republican
Other Positions Held: Brigadier General, U.S. Army (1864–1865)
  Major General, U.S. Army (1865)
  Member, U.S. House of Representatives (1865–1867)
  Governor of Ohio (1868–1872; 1876–1877)
Date of Inauguration: 4 March 1877
End of Term: 4 March 1881
Date of Death: 17 January 1893
Place of Death: Fremont, Ohio
Place of Burial: Fremont, Ohio
Elections
ELECTION OF 1876
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
Rutherford B. Hayes Rep. 185 48%
Samuel J. Tilden Dem. 184 51%
DID NOT RUN IN ELECTION OF 1880
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
45th Congress (1877–1879)
Senate: Rep. 39; Dem. 36; other 1
House: Dem. 153; Rep. 140
46th Congress (1879–1881)
Senate: Dem. 42; Rep. 33; other 1
House: Dem. 149; Rep. 130; others 14
Vice President
William A. Wheeler (1877–1881)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
William M. Evarts, secretary of state (1877–1881)
John Sherman, secretary of the treasury (1877–1881)
George W. McCrary, secretary of war (1877–1879)
Alexander Ramsey, secretary of war (1879–1881)
Charles Devens, attorney general (1877–1881)
David M. Key, postmaster general (1877–1880)
Horace Maynard, postmaster general (1880–1881)
Richard W. Thompson, secretary of the navy (1877–1881)
Nathan Goff, Jr., secretary of the navy (1881)
Carl Schurz, secretary of the interior (1877–1881)
Supreme Court Appointments:
John Marshall Harlan (1877–1911)
William B. Woods (1881–1887)
Key Events
1877 Hayes becomes president after disputed election (4 Mar.); Lucy Webb Hayes becomes first First Lady with a college degree; Thomas Edison patents the phonograph; Reconstruction ends in the South; surrender of Chief Joseph in Nez Perce War (15 Oct.).
1879 White House acquires first telephone (10 May).
1880 U.S. population: 50,155,783 First typewriter arrives at White House (12 Feb.); Garfield elected president (2 Nov.); treaty with China (17 Nov.) limits immigration of Chinese laborers.

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

James Abram Garfield, 20th President (1881)
Life
Birthdate: 19 November 1831
Birthplace: Orange, Ohio
Parents: Abram Garfield, Eliza Ballou
Religion: Disciples of Christ
College Education: Williams College
Wife: Lucretia Rudolph
Date of Marriage: 11 November 1858
Children: Eliza Arabella, Harry Augustus, James Rudolph, Mary, Irvin McDowell, Abram, Edward
Political Party: Republican
Other Positions Held: President, Hiram College (1857–1861)
  Ohio State Senator (1859–1861)
  Brigadier General, U.S. Army (1862–1863)
  Major General, U.S. Army (1863)
  Member, U.S. House of Representatives(1863–1880)
Date of Inauguration: 4 March 1881
End of Term: 19 September 1881 (assassinated by Charles Guiteau)
Date of Death: 19 September 1881
Place of Death: Elberon, N.J.
Place of Burial: Cleveland, Ohio
Elections
ELECTION OF 1880
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
James A. Garfield Rep. 214 48.5%
Winfield S. Hancock Dem. 155 48.1%
James B. Weaver Greenback–Labor 0 3.4%
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
47th Congress (1881–1883)
Senate: Rep. 37; Dem. 37; other 1
House: Rep. 147; Dem. 135; others 11
Vice President
Chester A. Arthur (1881)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
James G. Blaine, secretary of state (1881)
William Windom, secretary of the treasury (1881)
Robert T. Lincoln, secretary of war (1881)
Wayne MacVeagh, attorney general (1881)
Thomas L. James, postmaster general (1881)
William H. Hunt, secretary of the navy (1881)
Samuel J. Kirkwood, secretary of the interior (1881)
Supreme Court Appointment:
Stanley Matthews (1881–1889)
Key Event
1881 Garfield assassinated (2 July) by Charles J. Guiteau.

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

Chester Alan Arthur, 21st President (1881–1885)
Life
Birthdate: 5 October 1829
Birthplace: Fairfield, Vt.
Parents: William Arthur, Malvina Stone
Religion: Episcopalian
College Education: Union College
Wife: Ellen Lewis Herndon
Date of Marriage: 25 October 1859
Children: William Lewis Herndon, Chester Alan, Ellen Herndon
Political Party: Republican
Other Positions Held: Collector of the Port of New York (1871–1878)
  Vice President (1881)
Date of Inauguration: 20 September 1881 (succeeded to presidency on death of James A. Garfield)
End of Term: 4 March 1885
Date of Death: 18 November 1886
Place of Death: New York, N.Y.
Place of Burial: Albany, N.Y.
Elections
DID NOT RUN IN ELECTION OF 1884
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
47th Congress (1881–1883)
Senate: Rep. 37; Dem. 37; other 1
House: Rep. 147; Dem. 135; others 11
48th Congress (1883–1885)
Senate: Rep. 38; Dem. 36; others 2
House: Dem. 197; Rep. 118; others 10
Vice President
None
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
James G. Blaine, secretary of state (1881)
Frederick T. Frelinghuysen, secretary of state (1881–1885)
William Windom, secretary of the treasury (1881)
Charles J. Folger, secretary of the treasury (1881–1884)
Walter Q. Gresham, secretary of the treasury (1884)
Hugh McCullough, secretary of the treasury (1884–1885)
Robert T. Lincoln, secretary of war (1881–1885)
Wayne MacVeagh, attorney general (1881)
Benjamin H. Brewster, attorney general (1882–1885)
Timothy O. Howe, postmaster general (1882–1883)
Frank Hatton, postmaster general (1883)
Walter Q. Gresham, postmaster general (1883–1884)
Frank Hatton, postmaster general (1884–1885)
William H. Hunt, secretary of the navy (1881–1882)
William E. Chandler, secretary of the navy (1882–1885)
Samuel J. Kirkwood, secretary of the interior (1881–1882)
Henry M. Teller, secretary of the interior (1882-1885)
Supreme Court Appointments:
Horace Gray (1882–1902)
Samuel Blatchford (1882–1893)
Key Events
1881 Arthur becomes second president to come into office upon assassination of a president (20 Sept.).
1882 Peace treaty signed with Korea (22 May).
1883 Pendleton Act (16 Jan.) establishes Civil Service Commission and competitive examinations.
1884 Cleveland elected president (4 Nov.).

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

Grover Cleveland, 22nd President (1885-1889)
Life
Birthdate: 18 March 1837
Birthplace: Caldwell, N.J.
Parents: Richard Falley Cleveland, Anne Neal
Religion: Presbyterian
College Education: None
Wife: Frances Folsom
Date of Marriage: 2 June 1886
Children: Ruth, Esther, Marion, Richard Folsom, Francis Grover
Political Party: Democratic
Other Positions Held: Mayor of Buffalo, New York (1881–1882)
  Governor of New York (1883–1885)
Date of Inauguration: 4 March 1885
End of Term: 4 March 1889
Date of Death: 24 June 1908
Place of Death: Princeton, N.J.
Place of Burial: Princeton, N.J.
Elections
ELECTION OF 1884
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
Grover Cleveland Dem. 219 48.5%
James G. Blaine Rep. 182 48.2%
Benjamin F. Butler Greenback–Labor 0 1.8%
John P. St. John Proh. 0 1.5%
DEFEATED IN ELECTION OF 1888 BY BENJAMIN HARRISON
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
49th Congress (1885–1887)
Senate: Rep. 43; Dem. 34
House: Dem. 183; Rep. 140; others 2
50th Congress (1887–1889)
Senate: Rep. 39; Dem. 37
House: Dem. 169; Rep. 152; others 4
Vice President
Thomas A. Hendricks (1885)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
Thomas F. Bayard, secretary of state (1885–1889)
Daniel Manning, secretary of the treasury (1885–1887)
Charles S. Fairchild, secretary of the treasury (1887–1889)
William C. Endicott, secretary of war (1885–1889)
Augustus Garland, attorney general (1885–1889)
William F. Vilas, postmaster general (1885–1888)
Don M. Dickinson, postmaster general (1888–1889)
William C. Whitney, secretary of the navy (1885–1889)
Lucius Q. C. Lamar, secretary of the interior (1885–1888)
William F. Vilas, secretary of the interior (1888–1889)
Norman J. Colman, secretary of agriculture (1889)
Supreme Court Appointments:
Lucius Q. C. Lamar (1888–1893)
Melville W. Fuller, chief justice (1888–1910)
Key Events
1886 Presidential Succession Act (19 Jan.) delineates line of succession to presidency; Haymarket Riot erupts (4 May) in Chicago; Cleveland marries Frances Folsom (2 June), becomes first president to wed in the White House.
1887 Interstate Commerce Act (4 Feb.) gives federal government right to regulate transportation and business extending beyond state lines.
1888 Harrison elected president (6 Nov.), first grandson of a president to be elected.
1889 Department of Agriculture accorded Cabinet–level status (Feb.).

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

Benjamin Harrison, 23rd President (1889–1893)
Life
Birthdate: 20 August 1833
Birthplace: North Bend, Ohio
Parents: John Scott Harrison, Elizabeth Ramsey Irwin
Religion: Presbyterian
College Education: Miami University
First Wife: Caroline Lavina Scott (died 1892)
Date of First Marriage: 20 October 1853
Children from First Marriage: Russell Benjamin, Mary Scott
Second Wife: Mary Scott Lord Dimmick
Date of Second Marriage: 6 April 1896
Child from Second Marriage: Elizabeth
Political Party: Republican
Other Positions Held: Brigadier General, U.S. Army (1865)
  U.S. Senator (1881–1887)
Date of Inauguration: 4 March 1889
End of Term: 4 March 1893
Date of Death: 13 March 1901
Place of Death: Indianapolis, Ind.
Place of Burial: Indianapolis, Ind.
Elections
ELECTION OF 1888
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
Benjamin Harrison Rep. 233 47.9%
Grover Cleveland Dem. 168 48.6%
Clinton B. Fisk Proh. 0 2.2%
Anson J. Streeter Union Labor 0 1.3%
DEFEATED IN ELECTION OF 1892 BY GROVER CLEVELAND
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
51st Congress (1889–891)
Senate: Rep. 39; Dem. 37
House: Rep. 166; Dem. 159
52d Congress (1891–1893)
Senate: Rep. 47; Dem. 39; others 2
House: Dem. 235; Rep. 88; others 9
Vice President
Levi P. Morton (1889–1893)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
James G. Blaine, secretary of state (1889–1892)
John W. Foster, secretary of state (1892–1893)
William Windom, secretary of the treasury (1889–1891)
Charles Foster, secretary of the treasury (1891–1893)
Redfield Proctor, secretary of war (1889–1891)
Stephen B. Elkins, secretary of war (1891–1893)
William H. H. Miller, attorney general (1889–1893)
John Wanamaker, postmaster general (1889–1893)
Benjamin F. Tracy, secretary of the navy (1889–1893)
John W. Noble, secretary of the interior (1889–1893)
Jeremiah M. Rusk, secretary of agriculture (1889–1893)
Supreme Court Appointments:
David J. Brewer (1889–1910)
Henry B. Brown (1891–1906)
George Shiras, Jr. (1892–1903)
Howell E. Jackson (1893–1895)
Key Events
1889 First Oklahoma land run (22 Apr.) by 50,000.
1890 U.S. population: 62,947,714 Sherman Antitrust Act (2 July) declares restraint of trade illegal; Messiah War: an outgrowth of Ghost Dance excitement among the Sioux in the badlands of South Dakota; Sitting Bull is killed while resisting arrest (15 Dec.); principal band of hostile Indians under Big Foot, camped at Wounded Knee Creek, surrender, but are massacred (28 Dec.); final fight between Indians and U.S. Army.
1891 Electric lighting comes to White House.
1892 State militia break up Homestead Steelworkers Strike (12 July); martial law declared in Coeur d'Alene silver mines in Idaho after violence between striking miners and strike breakers; Cleveland elected president (8 Nov.).

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

Grover Cleveland, 24th President (1893–1897)
Life
Birthdate: 18 March 1837
Birthplace: Caldwell, N.J.
Parents: Richard Falley Cleveland, Anne Neal
Religion: Presbyterian
College Education: None
Wife: Frances Folsom
Date of Marriage: 2 June 1886
Children: Ruth, Esther, Marion, Richard Folsom, Francis Grover
Political Party: Democratic
Other Positions Held: Mayor of Buffalo, New York (1881–1882)
  Governor of New York (1883–1885)
Date of Inauguration: 4 March 1893
End of Term: 4 March 1897
Date of Death: 24 June 1908
Place of Death: Princeton, N.J.
Place of Burial: Princeton, N.J.
Elections
ELECTION OF 1892
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
Grover Cleveland Dem. 277 46.1%
Benjamin Harrison Rep. 145 43%
James Weaver Populist 22 8.5%
John Bidwell Proh. 0 2.2%
DID NOT RUN IN ELECTION OF 1896
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
53d Congress (1893–1895)
Senate: Dem. 44; Rep. 38; others 3
House: Dem. 218; Rep. 127; others 11
54th Congress (1895–1897)
Senate: Rep. 43; Dem. 39; others 6
House: Rep. 244; Dem. 105; others 7
Vice President
Adlai E. Stevenson (1893–1897)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
Walter Q. Gresham, secretary of state (1893–1895)
Richard Olney, secretary of state (1895–1897)
John G. Carlisle, secretary of the treasury (1893–1897)
Daniel S. Lamont, secretary of war (1893–1897)
Richard Olney, attorney general (1893–1895)
Judson Harmon, attorney general (1895–1897)
Wilson S. Bissell, postmaster general (1893–1895)
William L. Wilson, postmaster general (1895–1897)
Hilary A. Herbert, secretary of the navy (1893–1897)
Hoke Smith, secretary of the interior (1893–1896)
David R. Francis, secretary of the interior (1896–1897)
Julius Sterling Morton, secretary of agriculture (1893–1897)
Supreme Court Appointments:
Edward D. White (1894–1921)
Rufus W. Peckham (1896–1909)
Key Events
1893 Panic of 1893 with failure of 4,000 banks and 14,000 commercial businesses; Diplomatic Appropriation Act (Mar.) creates rank of ambassador; Thomas Francis Bayard appointed U.S. ambassador to Great Britain (Apr.).
1894 Pullman Strike (11 May–20 July): 4,000 members of American Railway Union strike Pullman Palace Car Company and defy blanket injunction prohibiting interference with trains, quelled by federal troops; Edison's kinetoscope has first public showing in New York City.
1896 Supreme Court ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson upholds legality of separate but equal facilities for races; McKinley elected president (3 Nov.).

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

William McKinley, 25th President (1897–1901)
Life
Birthdate: 29 January 1843
Birthplace: Niles, Ohio
Parents: William McKinley, Nancy Campbell Allison
Religion: Methodist
College Education: Allegheny College
Wife: Ida Saxton
Date of Marriage: 25 January 1871
Children: Katherine, Ida
Political Party: Republican
Other Positions Held: Member, U.S. House of Representatives (1877–1883)
  Governor of Ohio (1892–1896)
Date of Inauguration: 4 March 1897
End of Term: 14 September 1901 (assassinated by Leon Czolgosz)
Date of Death: 14 September 1901
Place of Death: Buffalo, N.Y.
Place of Burial: Canton, Ohio
Elections
ELECTION OF 1896
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
William McKinley Rep. 271 51.1%
William J. Bryan Dem. 176 47.7%
ELECTION OF 1900
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
William McKinley Rep. 292 51.7%
William J. Bryan Dem./Populist 155 45.5%
John C. Woolley Proh. 0 1.5%
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
55th Congress (1897–1899)
Senate: Rep. 47; Dem. 34; others 7
House: Rep. 204; Dem. 113; others 40
56th Congress (1899–1901)
Senate: Rep. 53; Dem. 26; others 8
House: Rep. 185; Dem. 163; others 9
57th Congress (1901–1903)
Senate: Rep. 55; Dem. 31; others 4
House: Rep. 197; Dem. 151; others 9
Vice Presidents
Garret Augustus Hobart (1897–1899)
Theodore Roosevelt (1901)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
John Sherman, secretary of state (1897–1898)
William R. Day, secretary of state (1898)
John Hay, secretary of state (1898–1901)
Lyman J. Gage, secretary of the treasury (1897–1901)
Russell A. Alger, secretary of war (1897–1899)
Elihu Root, secretary of war (1899–1901)
Joseph McKenna, attorney general (1897–1898)
John W. Griggs, attorney general (1898–1901)
Philander C. Knox, attorney general (1901)
James A. Gary, postmaster general (1897–1898)
Charles E. Smith, postmaster general (1898–1901)
John D. Long, secretary of the navy (1897–1901)
Cornelius N. Bliss, secretary of the interior (1897)
Ethan A. Hitchcock, secretary of the interior (1898–1901)
James Wilson, secretary of agriculture (1897–1901)
Supreme Court Appointment:
Joseph McKenna (1898–1925)
Key Events
1898 Spanish–American War: U.S. battleship Maine explodes in Havana harbor, Cuba (15 Feb.); U.S. declares independence of Cuba (25 Apr.) and that state of war existed with Spain since 21 Apr.; Treaty of Paris (10 Dec.) establishes independence of Cuba, cedes Puerto Rico and Guam to U.S., and U.S. purchases Philippines for $20 million.
1899 First Hague Conference (18 May-29 July) establishes Permanent Court of Arbitration; Open Door Policy enunciated affirming U.S. commercial and industrial rights in China; McKinley becomes first president to ride in an automobile (Nov.).
1900 U.S. population: 75,994,575 Boxer Rebellion: antiforeign uprising in China by secret society of Boxers (June); McKinley reelected (6 Nov.); Gen. Arthur MacArthur captures thousands (Nov.) of Filipino revolutionaries battling troops of U.S. military government (revolutionaries surrender in 1902); Samoan Partition Treaty (2 Dec.): islands divided between Germany, Great Britain, and U.S.
1901 Platt amendment adopted (2 Mar.), outlining U.S.–Cuban relations and agreements; McKinley assassinated (6 Sept.) by Leon Czolgosz.

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

Theodore Roosevelt, 26th President (1901–1909)
Life
Birthdate: 27 October 1858
Birthplace: New York, N.Y.
Parents: Theodore Roosevelt, Martha Bulloch
Religion: Dutch Reformed Church
College Education: Harvard College
First Wife: Alice Hathaway Lee (died 1884)
Date of First Marriage: 27 October 1880
Child from First Marriage: Alice Lee
Second Wife: Edith Kermit Carow
Date of Second Marriage: 2 December 1886
Children from Second Marriage: Theodore, Kermit, Ethel Carow, Archibald Bulloch, Qeuentin
Political Party: Republican
Other Positions Held: Member, New York legislature (1882–1884)
  Assistant Secretary of the Navy (1897–1898)
  Governor of New York (1899–1901)
  Vice President (1901)
Date of Inauguration: 14 September 1901 (succeeded to presidency on death of William McKinley)
End of Term: 4 March 1909
Date of Death: 6 January 1919
Place of Death: Oyster Bay, N.Y.
Place of Burial: Oyster Bay, N.Y.
Elections
ELECTION OF 1904
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
Theodore Roosevelt Rep. 336 56.4%
Alton B. Parker Dem. 140 37.6%
Eugene V. Debs Soc. 0 3.0%
Silas C. Swallow Proh. 0 1.9%
DID NOT RUN IN ELECTION OF 1908
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
57th Congress (1901–1903)
Senate: Rep. 55; Dem. 31; others 4
House: Rep. 197; Dem. 151; others 9
58th Congress (1903–1905)
Senate: Rep. 57; Dem. 33
House: Rep. 208; Dem. 178
59th Congress (1905–1907)
Senate: Rep. 57; Dem. 33
House: Rep. 250; Dem. 136
60th Congress (1907–1909)
Senate: Rep. 61; Dem. 31
House: Rep. 222; Dem. 164
Vice President
Charles W. Fairbanks (1905–1909)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
John Hay, secretary of state (1901–1905)
Elihu Root, secretary of state (1905–1909)
Robert Bacon, secretary of state (1909)
Lyman J. Gage, secretary of the treasury (1901–1902)
Leslie M. Shaw, secretary of the treasury (1902–1907)
George B. Cortelyou, secretary of the treasury (1907–1909)
Elihu Root, secretary of war (1901–1904)
William Howard Taft, secretary of war (1904–1908)
Luke E. Wright, secretary of war (1908–1909)
Philander C. Knox, attorney general (1901–1904)
William H. Moody, attorney general (1904–1906)
Charles J. Bonaparte, attorney general (1906–1909)
Charles E. Smith, postmaster general (1901–1902)
Henry C. Payne, postmaster general (1902–1904)
Robert J. Wynne, postmaster general (1904–1905)
George B. Cortelyou, postmaster general (1905–1907)
George von L. Meyer, postmaster general (1907–1909)
John D. Long, secretary of the navy (1901–1902)
William H. Moody, secretary of the navy (1902–1904)
Paul Morton, secretary of the navy (1904–1905)
Charles J. Bonaparte, secretary of the navy (1905–1906)
Victor H. Metcalf, secretary of the navy (1906–1908)
Truman H. Newberry, secretary of the navy (1908–1909)
Ethan A. Hitchcock, secretary of the interior (1901–1907)
James R. Garfield, secretary of the interior (1907–1909)
James Wilson, secretary of agriculture (1901–1909)
George B. Cortelyou, secretary of commerce and labor (1903–1904)
Victor H. Metcalf, secretary of commerce and labor (1904–1906)
Oscar S. Straus, secretary of commerce and labor (1906–1909)
Supreme Court Appointments:
Oliver Wendell Holmes (1902–1932)
William R. Day (1903–1922)
William H. Moody (1906–1910)
Key Events
1901 Roosevelt becomes third president to come into office upon assassination of a president (14 Sept.).
1902 Reclamation Act (June) authorizes president to retain public lands as part of public domain and to construct irrigation works in western states.
1903 Department of Commerce and Labor established (14 Feb.); U.S. warships stand by to protect U.S. interests as Panama revolts against Colombia; Panama independence recognized (6 Nov.); Hay–Bunau–Varilla Treaty (13 Nov.) provides for construction and operation of canal in Panama; Wright brothers' first airplane flight at Kitty Hawk, N.C. (17 Dec.).
1904 Theodore Roosevelt elected president (8 Nov.); Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine pronounced (6 Dec.) to prevent intervention in Latin America by European creditors.
1905 Taft–Katsura Memorandum (29 July): U.S.–Japanese cooperation agreement for "maintenance of peace in Far East."
1906 Algeciras Conference (16 Jan.): U.S. obtains privileged position in Morocco; Theodore Roosevelt awarded Nobel Prize for peace; San Francisco earthquake and fire (18–21 Apr.) kills 700.
1907 Gentlemen's Agreement (24 Feb.): U.S. and Japan agree to exclude further Japanese laborers from emigrating to U.S.; Panic of 1907; second Hague Peace Conference (15 June–18 Oct.).
1908 Henry Ford introduces Model T (1 Oct.); Taft elected president (3 Nov.).

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

William Howard Taft, 27th President (1909–1913)
Life
Birthdate: 15 September 1857
Birthplace: Cincinnati, Ohio
Parents: Alphonso Taft, Louisa Maria Torrey
Religion: Unitarian
College Education: Yale College; Cincinnati Law School
Wife: Helen Herron
Date of Marriage: 19 June 1886
Children: Robert Alphonso, Helen Herron, Charles Phelps
Political Party: Republican
Other Positions Held: Judge, Ohio Superior Court (1887–1890)
  U.S. Solicitor General (1890–1892)
  U.S. Circuit Court Judge (1892–1900)
  Governor–General, Philippines (1901–1904)
  Secretary of War (1904–1908)
  Law Professor, Yale University (1913–1921)
  Chief Justice, U.S. Supreme Court (1921–1930)
Date of Inauguration: 4 March 1909
End of Term: 4 March 1913
Date of Death: 8 March 1930
Place of Death: Washington, D.C.
Place of Burial: Arlington, Va.
Elections
ELECTION OF 1908
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
William Howard Taft Rep. 321 51.6%
William J. Bryan Dem. 162 43.1%
Eugene V. Debs Soc. 0 2.8%
Eugene W. Chafin Proh. 0 1.7%
DEFEATED IN ELECTION OF 1912 BY WOODROW WILSON
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
61st Congress (1909–1911)
Senate: Rep. 61; Dem. 32
House: Rep. 219; Dem. 172
62d Congress (1911–1913)
Senate: Rep. 51; Dem. 41
House: Dem. 228; Rep. 161; others 1
Vice President
James S. Sherman (1909–1912)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
Philander C. Knox, secretary of state (1909–1913)
Franklin MacVeagh, secretary of the treasury (1909–1913)
Jacob W. Dickinson, secretary of war (1909–1911)
Henry L. Stimson, secretary of war (1911–1913)
George W. Wickersham, attorney general (1909–1913)
Frank H. Hitchcock, postmaster general (1909–1913)
George von L. Meyer, secretary of the navy (1909–1913)
Richard A. Ballinger, secretary of the interior (1909–1911)
Walter L. Fisher, secretary of the interior (1911–1913)
James Wilson, secretary of agriculture (1909–1913)
Charles Nagel, secretary of commerce and labor (1909–1913)
Supreme Court Appointments:
Horace H. Lurton (1910–1914)
Charles Evans Hughes (1910–1916)
Edward D. White, chief justice (1910–1921) (promoted from associate justice)
Willis Van Devanter (1911–1937)
Joseph R. Lamar (1911–1916)
Mahlon Pitney (1912–1922)
Key Events
1909 Robert E. Peary reaches North Pole (6 Apr.); National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) founded; Taft converts the White House stables into a garage and acquires 4 automobiles.
1910 U.S. population: 91,972,266. Mann–Elkins Act (18 June) places telephone, telegraph, cable, and wireless companies under Interstate Commerce Commission jurisdiction.
1912 Lodge Corollary (2 Aug.), first application of Monroe Doctrine to Asian nation, prevents Japanese purchase of land in Baja California; marines arrive in Nicaragua (14 Aug.) to support Adolpho Díaz government; token force withdraws in 1925, last marines leave in 1933; Wilson elected president (5 Nov.).
1913 Sixteenth Amendment ratified (25 Feb.), establishing federal income tax; on last day as president, Taft signs legislation creating Department of Commerce and Department of Labor to replace Department of Commerce and Labor (4 Mar.).

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

Woodrow Wilson, 28th President (1913–1921)
Life
Birthdate: 28 December 1856
Birthplace: Staunton, Va.
Parents: Joseph Ruggles Wilson, Jessie Janet Woodrow
Religion: Presbyterian
College Education: Princeton University; University of Virginia Law
School: Johns Hopkins University
First Wife: Ellen Louise Axson (died 1914)
Date of First Marriage: 24 June 1885
Children from First Marriage: Margaret Woodrow, Jessie Woodrow, Eleanor Randolph
Second Wife: Edith Bolling Galt
Date of Second Marriage: 18 December 1915
Children from Second Marriage: None
Political Party: Democratic
Other Positions Held: President, Princeton University (1902–1910)
  Governor of New Jersey (1911–1913)
Date of Inauguration: 4 March 1913
End of Term: 4 March 1921
Date of Death: 3 February 1924
Place of Death: Washington, D.C.
Place of Burial: National Cathedral, Washington, D.C.
Elections
ELECTION OF 1912
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
Woodrow Wilson Dem. 435 41.9%
Theodore Roosevelt Prog. 88 27.4%
William Howard Taft Rep. 8 23.2%
Eugene V. Debs Soc. 0 6.0%
Eugene W. Chafin Proh. 0 1.5%
ELECTION OF 1916
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
Woodrow Wilson Dem. 277 49.4%
Charles E. Hughes Rep. 254 46.2%
A. L. Benson Soc. 0 3.2%
J. Frank Hanly Proh. 0 1.2%
DID NOT RUN IN ELECTION OF 1920
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
63d Congress (1913–1915)
Senate: Dem. 51; Rep. 44; other 1
House: Dem. 291; Rep. 127; others 17
64th Congress (1915–1917)
Senate: Dem. 56; Rep. 40
House: Dem. 230; Rep. 196; others 9
65th Congress (1917–1919)
Senate: Dem. 53; Rep. 42
House: Dem. 216; Rep. 210; others 6
66th Congress (1919–1921)
Senate: Rep. 49; Dem. 47
House: Rep. 240; Dem. 190; others 3
Vice President
Thomas R. Marshall (1913–1921)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
William Jennings Bryan, secretary of state (1913–1915)
Robert Lansing, secretary of state (1915–1920)
Bainbridge Colby, secretary of state (1920–1921)
William Gibbs McAdoo, secretary of the treasury (1913–1918)
Carter Glass, secretary of the treasury (1918–1920)
David F. Houston, secretary of the treasury (1920–1921)
Lindley M. Garrison, secretary of war (1913–1916)
Newton D. Baker, secretary of war (1916–1921)
James C. McReynolds, attorney general (1913–1914)
Thomas W. Gregory, attorney general (1914–1919)
A. Mitchell Palmer, attorney general (1919–1921)
Albert S. Burleson, postmaster general (1913–1921)
Josephus Daniels, secretary of the navy (1913–1921)
Franklin K. Lane, secretary of the interior (1913–1920)
John B. Payne, secretary of the interior (1920–1921)
David F. Houston, secretary of agriculture (1913–1920)
Edwin T. Meredith, secretary of agriculture (1920–1921)
William C. Redfield, secretary of commerce (1913–1919)
Joshua W. Alexander, secretary of commerce (1919–1921)
William B. Wilson, secretary of labor (1913–1921)
Supreme Court Appointments:
James C. McReynolds (1914–1941)
Louis D. Brandeis (1916–1939)
John H. Clarke (1916–1922)
Key Events
1913 Wilson holds first presidential press conference (15 Mar.); Wilson appears before Congress in person to deliver an address, breaking long–standing precedent (8 Apr.); Seventeenth Amendment ratified (31 May), providing for direct election of U.S. Senators; Underwood Tariff significantly reduces tariff rates; Federal Reserve System established (23 Dec.).
1914 Wilson proclaims U.S. neutrality in European war (4 Aug.); Panama Canal opened (15 Aug.).
1915 First transcontinental telephone conversation (25 Jan.); Lusitania sinks (7 May) with loss of 128 Americans after attack by German submarine; U.S. marines occupy Haiti after civil war (28 July); treaty signed by Haitian senate (16 Sept.) makes island nation virtual U.S. protectorate.
1916 British steamer Sussex attacked by German submarine (24 Mar.), and 2 Americans injured; by executive order an official presidential flag is adopted (29 May); treaty signed for purchase of Danish West Indies (4 Aug.); Wilson reelected (7 Nov.); resistance in Dominican Republic to U.S. customs receivership leads to martial law (29 Nov.) with government headed by U.S. Navy officer.
1917 Wilson's "Peace without victory" speech (22 Jan.); Germany informs U.S. of resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare (31 Jan.); Wilson severs diplomatic relations with Germany (3 Feb.); Zimmermann note of German guarantees to Mexico published (1 Mar.); U.S. enters World War I with declaration of war on Germany (6 Apr.); federal government takes over railroads (26 Dec.).
1918 Wilson's Fourteen Points (8 Jan.) state U.S. terms of peace with Germany; Sedition Act (16 May) provides heavy penalties for hindering war effort; armistice declared (11 Nov.), ending World War I; Wilson becomes first president to leave American soil while in office, going to Europe to plan the peace (4 Dec.); major outbreak of influenza kills thousands.
1919 Eighteenth Amendment (Prohibition) ratified (19 Jan.); first transatlantic flight by navy seaplane (8-27 May); Treaty of Versailles signed (28 June); Boston Police Strike (9 Sept.): Boston militia restores order, entire Massachusetts militia called out by Gov. Calvin Coolidge; Wilson suffers series of debilitating strokes (Sept.–Oct.).
1920 U.S. population: 105,710,620 Red Scare: 2,700 Communists arrested (Jan.-May); Senate refuses to ratify Versailles Treaty (19 Mar.); Nineteenth Amendment gives right to vote to women (20 Aug.); Harding elected president (2 Nov.); presidential election results first reported by radio (station KDKA, Pittsburgh).

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

Warren Gamaliel Harding, 29th President (1921–1923)
Life
Birthdate: 2 November 1865
Birthplace: Corsica (now Blooming Grove), Ohio
Parents: George Tryon Harding, Phoebe Elizabeth Dickerson
Religion: Baptist
College Education: Ohio Central College
Wife: Florence Kling De Wolfe
Date of Marriage: 8 July 1891
Children: None
Political Party: Republican
Other Positions Held: Editor, Marion (Ohio) Star (1884–1910)
  Ohio State Senator (1899–1903)
  Lieutenant Governor of Ohio (1903–1905)
  U.S. Senator (1915–1921)
Date of Inauguration: 4 March 1921
End of Term: 2 August 1923 (died in office)
Date of Death: 2 August 1923
Place of Death: San Francisco, Calif.
Place of Burial: Marion, Ohio
Elections
ELECTION OF 1920
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
Warren G. Harding Rep. 404 60.4%
James M. Cox Dem. 127 34.2%
Eugene V. Debs Soc. 0 3.4%
P. P. Christensen Farmer–Labor 0 1.0%
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
67th Congress (1921–1923)
Senate: Rep. 59; Dem. 37
House: Rep. 301; Dem. 131; other 1
68th Congress (1923–1925)
Senate: Rep. 51; Dem. 43; others 2
House: Rep. 225; Dem. 205; others 5
Vice President
Calvin Coolidge (1921–1923)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
Charles Evans Hughes, secretary of state (1921–1923)
Andrew W. Mellon, secretary of the treasury (1921–1923)
John W. Weeks, secretary of war (1921–1923)
Harry M. Daugherty, attorney general (1921–1923)
Will H. Hays, postmaster general (1921–1922)
Hubert Work, postmaster general (1922–1923)
Harry S. New, postmaster general (1923)
Edwin Denby, secretary of the navy (1921–1923)
Albert B. Fall, secretary of the interior (1921–1923)
Hubert Work, secretary of the interior (1923)
Henry C. Wallace, secretary of agriculture (1921–1923)
Herbert C. Hoover, secretary of commerce (1921–1923)
James J. Davis, secretary of labor (1921–1923)
Supreme Court Appointments:
William Howard Taft, chief justice (1921–1930)
George Sutherland (1922–1938)
Pierce Butler (1922–1939)
Edward T. Sanford (1923–1930)
Key Events
1921 Harding, the first president who could drive an automobile, becomes first to ride to his inauguration in one (4 Mar.); Washington Naval Conference convenes (12 Nov.) to deal with arms race and Pacific security.
1922 Five–Power Naval Treaty (29 Mar.) puts 10–year moratorium on ship construction, fixes ship tonnage ratio, restricts submarine use during war and outlaws poison gas; second Central American Conference convenes (4 Dec.) to settle issues between Nicaragua and Honduras.
1923 Harding dies (2 Aug.).

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

Calvin Coolidge, 30th President (1923–1929)
Life
Birthdate: 4 July 1872
Birthplace: Plymouth Notch, Vt.
Parents: John Calvin Coolidge, Victoria Josephine Moor
Religion: Congregationalist
College Education: Amherst College
Wife: Grace Anna Goodhue
Date of Marriage: 4 October 1905
Children: John, Calvin
Political Party: Republican
Other Positions Held: Member, Massachusetts Senate (1912–1915; President, 1914–1915)
  Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts (1916–1918)
  Governor of Massachusetts (1919–1920)
  Vice President (1921–1923)
Date of Inauguration: 3 August 1923 (succeeded to presidency on death of Warren G. Harding)
End of Term: 4 March 1929
Date of Death: 5 January 1933
Place of Death: Northampton, Mass.
Place of Burial: Plymouth Notch, Vt.
Elections
ELECTION OF 1924
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
Calvin Coolidge Rep. 382 54.0%
John W. Davis Dem. 136 28.8%
Robert M. La Follette Prog. 13 16.6%
DID NOT RUN IN ELECTION OF 1928
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
68th Congress (1923–1925)
Senate: Rep. 51; Dem. 43; others 2
House: Rep. 225; Dem. 205; others 5
69th Congress (1925–1927)
Senate: Rep. 56; Dem. 39; other 1
House: Rep. 247; Dem. 183; others 4
70th Congress (1927–1929)
Senate: Rep. 49; Dem. 46; other 1
House: Rep. 237; Dem. 195; others 3
Vice President
Charles G. Dawes (1925–1929)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
Charles Evans Hughes, secretary of state (1923–1925)
Frank B. Kellogg, secretary of state (1925–1929)
Andrew W. Mellon, secretary of the treasury (1923–1929)
John W. Weeks, secretary of war (1923–1925)
Dwight F. Davis, secretary of war (1925–1929)
Harry M. Daugherty, attorney general (1923–1924)
Harlan Fiske Stone, attorney general (1924–1925)
John G. Sargent, attorney general (1925–1929)
Harry S. New, postmaster general (1923–1929)
Edwin Denby, secretary of the navy (1923–1924)
Curtis D. Wilbur, secretary of the navy (1924–1929)
Hubert Work, secretary of the interior (1923–1928)
Roy O. West, secretary of the interior (1928–1929)
Henry C. Wallace, secretary of agriculture (1923–1924)
Howard M. Gore, secretary of agriculture (1924–1925)
William M. Jardine, secretary of agriculture (1925–1929)
Herbert C. Hoover, secretary of commerce (1923–1928)
William F. Whiting, secretary of commerce (1928–1929)
James J. Davis, secretary of labor (1923–1929)
Supreme Court Appointment:
Harlan Fiske Stone (1925–1946)
Key Events
1923 Coolidge sworn in as president upon death of Harding (3 Aug.); Teapot Dome Oil Scandal: corruption under Harding administration unearthed by Senate investigation over illegal leases of naval oil reserves at Teapot Dome, Wyo., and Elk Hills, Calif.
1924 Snyder Act (2 June) declares all U.S. Indians citizens; Coolidge elected president (4 Nov.).
1925 First national congress of the Ku Klux Klan in Washington, D.C. (8 Aug.).
1926 Civilian Aviation Act (2 Nov.) establishes bureau in Department of Commerce to map airways and provide flying regulations.
1927 Charles A. Lindbergh makes first solo nonstop transatlantic flight (20-21 May), from New York to Paris.
1928 Merchant Marine (Jones–White) Act (22 May) passes to encourage private shipping; Kellogg–Briand Pact signed (27 Aug.) by 15 nations, renouncing war as an instrument of national policy; Hoover elected president (6 Nov.).
1929 Kellogg–Briand Pact ratified by U.S. Senate (15 Jan.).

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

Herbert Hoover, 31st President (1929–1933)
Life
Birthdate: 10 August 1874
Birthplace: West Branch, Iowa
Parents: Jesse Clark Hoover, Hulda Randall Minthorn
Religion: Quaker
College Education: Stanford University
Wife: Lou Henry
Date of Marriage: 10 February 1899
Children: Herbert Clark, Allan Henry
Political Party: Republican
Other Positions Held: Relief administrator in Europe (1914–1919)
  U.S. Food Administrator (1917–1919)
  Secretary of Commerce (1921–1928)
Date of Inauguration: 4 March 1929
End of Term: 4 March 1933
Date of Death: 20 October 1964
Place of Death: New York, N.Y.
Place of Burial: West Branch, Iowa
Elections
ELECTION OF 1928
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
Herbert C. Hoover Rep. 444 58.2%
Alfred E. Smith Dem. 87 40.9%
DEFEATED IN ELECTION OF 1932 BY FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
71st Congress (1929–1931)
Senate: Rep. 56; Dem. 39; other 1
House: Rep. 267; Dem. 167; other 1
72d Congress (1931–1933)
Senate: Rep. 48; Dem. 47; other 1
House: Rep. 220; Dem. 214; other 1
Vice President
Charles Curtis (1929–1933)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
Henry L. Stimson, secretary of state (1929–1933)
Andrew W. Mellon, secretary of the treasury (1929–1932)
Ogden L. Mills, secretary of the treasury (1932–1933)
James W. Good, secretary of war (1929)
Patrick J. Hurley, secretary of war (1929–1933)
William D. Mitchell, attorney general (1929–1933)
Walter F. Brown, postmaster general (1929–1933)
Charles F. Adams, secretary of the navy (1929–1933)
Ray Lyman Wilbur, secretary of the interior (1929–1933)
Arthur M. Hyde, secretary of agriculture (1929–1933)
Robert P. Lamont, secretary of commerce (1929–1932)
Roy D. Chapin, secretary of commerce (1932–1933)
James J. Davis, secretary of labor (1929–1930)
William N. Doak, secretary of labor (1930–1933)
Supreme Court Appointments:
Charles Evans Hughes, chief justice (1930–1941) (promoted from
associate justice)
Owen J. Roberts (1930–1945)
Benjamin N. Cardozo (1932–1938)
Key Events
1929 Panic of 1929 results from stock market crash (29 Oct.).
1930 U.S. population: 122,775,046 "Star–Spangled Banner" becomes national anthem (3 Mar.); Smoot–Hawley Tariff (June) raises duties to prohibitive levels on 890 articles.
1931 Scottsboro Case: 8 of 9 black teenagers convicted and sentenced to death for allegedly raping 2 white women (Supreme Court overturns convictions in 1935 and evidence is released in 1966 proving innocence of "Scottsboro Boys").
1932 Reconstruction Finance Corp. established (2 Feb.) with $2 billion to advance loans to failing banks, building and loan societies, and insurance companies; Bonus March on Washington (May–July): 15,000 World War I veterans seek economic relief from Congress and are driven away by U.S. tanks, infantry, and cavalry; Roosevelt elected president (8 Nov.), having been first presidential nominee to address the convention that nominated him (Democratic, 2 July).
1933 Twentieth Amendment ratified (6 Feb.), advancing date of future presidential inaugurations to 20 Jan.

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 32nd President
Life
Birthdate: 30 January 1882
Birthplace: Hyde Park, N.Y.
Parents: James Roosevelt, Sara Delano
Religion: Episcopalian
College Education: Harvard College
Wife: (Anna) Eleanor Roosevelt
Date of Marriage: 17 March 1905
Children: Anna Eleanor, James, Franklin, Elliott, Franklin Delano, John Aspinwall
Political Party: Democratic
Other Positions Held: Member, New York Senate (1910–1913)
  Assistant Secretary of the Navy (1913–1920)
  Governor of New York (1929–1933)
Date of Inauguration: 4 March 1933
End of Term: 12 April 1945 (died in office)
Date of Death: 12 April 1945
Place of Death: Warm Springs, Ga.
Place of Burial: Hyde Park, N.Y.
Elections
ELECTION OF 1932
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
Franklin D. Roosevelt Dem. 472 57.4%
Herbert C. Hoover Rep. 59 39.7%
Norman Thomas Soc. 0 2.2%
ELECTION OF 1936
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
Franklin D. Roosevelt Dem. 523 60.8%
Alfred M. Landon Rep. 8 36.5%
William Lemke Union 0 1.9%
ELECTION OF 1940
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
Franklin D. Roosevelt Dem. 449 54.8%
Wendell Willkie Rep. 82 44.8%
ELECTION OF 1944
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
Franklin D. Roosevelt Dem. 432 53.5%
Thomas E. Dewey Rep. 99 46.0%
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
73d Congress (1933–1935)
Senate: Dem. 60; Rep. 35; other 1
House: Dem. 310; Rep. 117; others 5
74th Congress (1935–1937)
Senate: Dem. 69; Rep. 25; others 2
House: Dem. 319; Rep. 103; others 10
75th Congress (1937–1939)
Senate: Dem. 76; Rep. 16; others 4
House: Dem. 331; Rep. 89; others 13
76th Congress (1939–1941)
Senate: Dem. 69; Rep. 23; others 4
House: Dem. 261; Rep. 164; others 4
77th Congress (1941–1943)
Senate: Dem. 66; Rep. 28; others 2
House Dem. 268; Rep. 162; others 5
78th Congress (1943–1945)
Senate: Dem. 58; Rep. 37; other 1
House: Dem. 218; Rep. 208; others 4
79th Congress (1945–1947)
Senate: Dem. 56; Rep. 38; other 1
House: Dem. 242; Rep. 190; others 2
Vice Presidents
John Nance Garner (1933–1941)
Henry A. Wallace (1941–1945)
Harry S. Truman (1945)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
Cordell Hull, secretary of state (1933–1944)
Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., secretary of state (1944–1945)
W. H. Woodin, secretary of the treasury (1933)
Henry Morgenthau, Jr., secretary of the treasury (1934–1945)
George H. Dren, secretary of war (1933–1936)
Harry H. Woodring, secretary of war (1936–1940)
Henry L. Stimson, secretary of war (1940–1945)
Homer S. Cummings, attorney general (1933–1939)
Frank Murphy, attorney general (1939–1940)
Robert H. Jackson, attorney general (1940–1941)
Francis Biddle, attorney general (1941–1945)
James A. Farley, postmaster general (1933–1940)
Frank C. Walker, postmaster general (1941–1945)
Claude A. Swanson, secretary of the navy (1933–1939)
Charles Edison, secretary of the navy (1939)
Frank Knox, secretary of the navy (1940–1944)
James V. Forrestal, secretary of the navy (1944–1945)
Harold L. Ickes, secretary of the interior (1933–1945)
Henry A. Wallace, secretary of agriculture (1933–1940)
Claude R. Wickard, secretary of agriculture (1940–1945)
Daniel C. Roper, secretary of commerce (1933–1938)
Harry L. Hopkins, secretary of commerce (1938–1940)
Jesse H. Jones, secretary of commerce (1940–1945)
Henry A. Wallace, secretary of commerce (1945)
Frances Perkins, secretary of labor (1933–1945)
Supreme Court Appointments:
Hugo L. Black (1937–1971)
Stanley F. Reed (1938–1957)
Felix Frankfurter (1939–1962)
William O. Douglas (1939–1975)
Frank Murphy (1940–1949)
James F. Byrnes (1941–1942)
Harlan Fiske Stone, chief justice (1941–1946) (promoted from associate justice)
Robert H. Jackson (1941–1954)
Wiley B. Rutledge (1943–1949)
Key Events
1933 Good Neighbor Policy announced (4 Mar.) by Roosevelt to improve relations with Latin America; Roosevelt launches New Deal legislation: Emergency Banking Relief Act (9 Mar.), Civilian Conservation Corps (31 Mar.), Agricultural Adjustment Act (12 May), Federal Emergency Relief Act (12 May), Tennessee Valley Authority (18 May), Federal Securities Act (27 May), National Industrial Recovery Act (16 June), Civil Works Administration (8 Nov.); U.S. comes off gold standard (30 Apr.); U.S. recognizes USSR (16 Nov.); with ratification of Twenty–first Amendment, Prohibition ends (5 Dec.).
1934 Export–Import Bank established (2 Feb.); Securities and Exchange Act passes (6 June); Federal Communications Commission established (19 June).
1935 A second New Deal announced by Roosevelt (4 Jan.) for social reform: Soil Conservation Act (27 Apr.), Works Progress Administration (11 May), National Labor Relations Act (5 July), Social Security Act (14 Aug.), Public Utilities Act (28 Aug.); Huey Long (the "Kingfish") assassinated in Baton Rouge (Sept.).
1936 Roosevelt signs second neutrality bill (29 Feb.), banning loans to countries at war; Merchant Marine Act (26 June) creates U.S. Maritime Commission.
1937 Neutrality Act (1 May) prohibits export of arms and ammunition to belligerent nations and the use of U.S. ships for carrying munitions and war materials into belligerent zones; Amelia Earhart lost on round–the–world flight (2 July); U.S. Senate rejects "court–packing" plan by Roosevelt (22 July).
1938 House Committee to investigate Un–American Activities formed (26 May); Civil Aeronautics Act passed (23 June), establishes Civil Aeronautics Authority to supervise nonmilitary air transport; Fair Labor Standards (Wages and Hours) Act passes (25 June).
1939 At opening of New York World's Fair, Roosevelt becomes first president to be televised (30 Apr.); Executive Office of the President established (1 July); U.S. proclaims neutrality in European hostilities (5 Sept.); Roosevelt declares limited national emergency (8 Sept.); Neutrality Act of 1939 passes (4 Nov.) authorizing "cash and carry" sale of arms to belligerents.
1940 U.S. population 131,669,275 National Defense Research Committee established (15 June) with Vannevar Bush as chairman; embargo on exports of scrap iron and steel to non–Western Hemisphere nations except Great Britain (26 Sept.); Roosevelt reelected for record third term (5 Nov.); Office of Production Management established (20 Dec.); Roosevelt calls for production effort to make U.S. "arsenal of democracy" (29 Dec.).
1941 Lend–Lease bill passes (11 Mar.), for lending goods and services to democratic countries in return for services; secret U.S.–British talks in Washington, D.C. (27 Jan.–29 Mar.), produce war plan ABC–1 and set "Germany first" priority in event of war with Germany and Japan; Roosevelt declares unlimited national emergency (27 May); German and Italian consulates ordered closed (6 June); Atlantic Charter formulated (14 Aug.) by Roosevelt and Churchill outlining war aims; Japanese attack (7 Dec.) on Pearl Harbor cripples Pacific fleet; U.S. enters World War II with declarations of war on Japan (8 Dec.) and Germany (11 Dec.).
1942 U.S. signs UN Declaration (1 Jan.); Roosevelt orders (19 Feb.) relocation of Japanese–Americans to interior internment camps; first Moscow Conference (12-15 Aug.): U.S., Soviet Union, and Great Britain decide not to open second front in Europe; Manhattan Project to develop atomic bomb placed under command of Leslie R. Groves (31 Aug.).
1943 Casablanca Conference (14–24 Jan.): Roosevelt and Churchill decide that war would be fought to "unconditional surrender"; first Cairo Conference (22–26 Nov.): Roosevelt and Churchill confer with Chiang Kai–shek regarding war in Far East.
1944 Operation Overlord (D day): massive Allied landings (6 June) on Normandy beaches; Bretton Woods Conference (1–22 July) establishes International Monetary Fund; Dumbarton Oaks Conference (21 Aug.–7 Oct.) establishes basis for UN Charter.
1945 Yalta Conference (4–11 Feb.), Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin plan defeat of Germany; United Nations Conference (25 Apr.-26 June) in San Francisco drafts UN Charter; death of Roosevelt (12 Apr.).

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

Harry S. Truman, 33rd President (1945–1953)
Life
Birthdate: 8 May 1884
Birthplace: Lamar, Mo.
Parents: John Anderson Truman, Martha Ellen Young
Religion: Baptist
College Education: None
Wife: Elizabeth Virginia ("Bess") Wallace
Date of Marriage: 28 June 1919
Child: Margaret
Political Party: Democratic
Other Positions Held: Judge, Jackson County (Mo.) Court (1922–1924;1926–1934)
  U.S. Senator (1935–1945)
  Vice President (1945)
Date of Inauguration: 12 April 1945 (succeeded to presidency on deathof Franklin D. Roosevelt)
End of Term: 20 January 1953
Date of Death: 26 December 1972
Place of Death: Kansas City, Mo.
Place of Burial: Independence, Mo.
Elections
ELECTION OF 1948
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
Harry S. Truman Dem. 303 49.5%
Thomas E. Dewey Rep. 189 45%
J. Strom Thurmond States' Rights 39 2.4%
Henry A. Wallace Prog. 0 2.4%
DID NOT RUN IN ELECTION OF 1952
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
79th Congress (1945–1947)
Senate: Dem. 56; Rep. 38; other 1
House: Dem. 242; Rep. 190; others 2
80th Congress (1947–1949)
Senate: Rep. 51; Dem. 45
House: Rep. 245; Dem. 188; other 1
81st Congress (1949–1951)
Senate: Dem. 54; Rep. 42
House: Dem. 263; Rep. 171; other 1
82d Congress (1951–1953)
Senate: Dem. 49; Rep. 47
House: Dem. 234; Rep. 199; other 1
Vice President
Alben W. Barkley (1949–1953)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., secretary of state (1945)
James F. Byrnes, secretary of state (1945–1947)
George C. Marshall, secretary of state (1947–1949)
Dean G. Acheson, secretary of state (1949–1953)
Henry Morgenthau, Jr., secretary of the treasury (1945)
Frederick M. ("Fred") Vinson, secretary of the treasury (1945–1946)
John W. Snyder, secretary of the treasury (1946–1953)
Henry L. Stimson, secretary of war (1945)
Robert P. Patterson, secretary of war (1945–1947)
Kenneth C. Royall, secretary of war (1947)
James V. Forrestal, secretary of defense (1947–1949)
Louis A. Johnson, secretary of defense (1949–1950)
George C. Marshall, secretary of defense (1950–1951)
Robert A. Lovett, secretary of defense (1951–1953)
Francis Biddle, attorney general (1945)
Tom C. Clark, attorney general (1945–1949)
J. Howard McGrath, attorney general (1949–1952)
James P. McGranery, attorney general (1952–1953)
Frank C. Walker, postmaster general (1945)
Robert E. Hannegan, postmaster general (1945–1947)
Jesse M. Donaldson, postmaster general (1947–1953)
James V. Forrestal, secretary of the navy (1945–1947)
Harold L. Ickes, secretary of the interior (1945–1946)
Julius A. Krug, secretary of the interior (1946–1949)
Oscar L. Chapman, secretary of the interior (1949–1953)
Claude R. Wickard, secretary of agriculture (1945)
Clinton P. Anderson, secretary of agriculture (1945–1948)
Charles F. Brannan, secretary of agriculture (1948–1953)
Henry A. Wallace, secretary of commerce (1945–1946)
W. Averell Harriman, secretary of commerce (1946–1948)
Charles Sawyer, secretary of commerce (1948–1953)
Frances Perkins, secretary of labor (1945)
Lewis B. Schwellenbach, secretary of labor (1945–1948)
Maurice J. Tobin, secretary of labor (1948–1953)
Supreme Court Appointments:
Harold H. Burton (1945–1958)
Frederick M. ("Fred") Vinson, chief justice (1946–1953)
Tom C. Clark (1949–1967)
Sherman Minton (1949–1956)
Key Events
1945 Truman becomes president upon death of Roosevelt (12 Apr.); Germany surrenders (7 May); European Advisory Commission (5 June) establishes German occupation zones; Potsdam Conference (17 July–2 Aug.): Truman, Stalin, and Churchill plan future of postwar Europe; U.S. drops atomic bombs on Hiroshima (6 Aug.) and Nagasaki (9 Aug.); Japan surrenders (15 Aug.), ending World War II.
1946 Atomic bomb tests at Bikini Atoll in Pacific (1 July); Philippines given independence (4 July); Atomic Energy Act (1 Aug.) passes control of atomic energy to new Atomic Energy Commission.
1947 Truman Doctrine (12 Mar.): first U.S. attempt to contain Communism; aid to Greece and Turkey approved (22 May); Marshall Plan proposed (5 June) to aid Europe in postwar economic recovery; National Security Act passes (26 July), establishing National Security Council and Central Intelligence Agency; Department of Defense supersedes Department of War and Department of the Navy; Truman delivers first presidential address telecast from the White House (5 Oct.).
1948 USSR blockades Berlin's Allied sectors (1 Apr.); British and U.S. planes' aerial supply operation sustains West; Truman signs Foreign Assistance Act for European Recovery Program (2 Apr.); Truman reelected president (2 Nov.).
1949 Berlin Blockade lifted (12 May); North Atlantic Treaty Organization established (24 Aug.) by U.S., Canada, and 10 European nations; a complete reconstruction of the White House begins (12 Dec.); Trumans reside in nearby Blair House.
1950 U.S. population: 150,697,361 U.S. recalls (14 Jan.) consular officials from China after consulate general seized in Peking; H–bomb production authorized (31 Jan.); NSC–68 memorandum calls for massive increase in military spending to face Soviet threat (April); North Koreans cross 38th parallel into South Korea (25 June), provoking Korean War; UN command in Korea formed (7 July) with Gen. MacArthur designated commander (8 July); amphibious Inchon landing (15 Sept.) leads to recapture of Seoul (26 Sept.).
1951 Twenty–second Amendment limits presidential terms (26 Feb.); Julius and Ethel Rosenberg found guilty (29 Mar.) as spies and sentenced to death (executed 1953); MacArthur removed in Korea by Truman over strategy disagreements (11 Apr.); armistice negotiations begin (10 July).
1952 Reconstructed White House ready for occupancy (27 Mar.); Truman seizes steel mills (8 Apr.) to prevent strike; seizure ruled unconstitutional (2 June); Eisenhower elected president (4 Nov.).

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

Dwight David Eisenhower, 34th President (1953–1961)
Life
Birthdate: 14 October 1890
Birthplace: Denison, Tex.
Parents: David Jacob Eisenhower, Ida Elizabeth Stover
Religion: Presbyterian
College Education: United States Military Academy
Wife: Marie ("Mamie") Geneva Doud
Date of Marriage: 1 July 1916
Children: Doud Dwight, John Sheldon Doud
Political Party: Republican
Other Positions Held: Brigadier General, U.S. Army (1941–1942)
  Major General, U.S. Army (1942–1943)
  General, U.S. Army, and Supreme Allied Commander (1943–1945)
  Chief of Staff, U.S. Army (1945–1948)
  President, Columbia University (1948–1953)
  Supreme Commander, NATO forces in Europe (1951–1952)
Date of Inauguration: 20 January 1953
End of Term: 20 January 1961
Date of Death: 28 March 1969
Place of Death: Washington, D.C.
Place of Burial: Abilene, Kans.
Elections
ELECTION OF 1952
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
Dwight D. Eisenhower Rep. 442 55.1%
Adlai E. Stevenson Dem. 89 44.4%
ELECTION OF 1956
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
Dwight D. Eisenhower Rep. 457 57.6%
Adlai E. Stevenson Dem. 73 42.1%
INELIGIBLE TO RUN IN ELECTION OF 1960
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
83d Congress (1953–1955)
Senate: Rep. 48; Dem. 47; other 1
House: Rep. 221; Dem. 211; others 1
84th Congress (1955–1957)
Senate: Dem. 48; Rep. 47; other 1
House: Dem. 232; Rep. 203
85th Congress (1957–1959)
Senate: Dem. 49; Rep. 47
House: Dem. 233; Rep. 200
86th Congress (1959–1961)
Senate: Dem. 64; Rep. 34
House: Dem. 283; Rep. 153
Vice President
Richard M. Nixon (1953–1961)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
John Foster Dulles, secretary of state (1953–1959)
Christian A. Herter, secretary of state (1959–1961)
George M. Humphrey, secretary of the treasury (1953–1957)
Robert B. Anderson, secretary of the treasury (1957–1961)
Charles E. Wilson, secretary of defense (1953–1957)
Neil H. McElroy, secretary of defense (1957–1959)
Thomas S. Gates, secretary of defense (1959–1961)
Herbert Brownell, Jr., attorney general (1953–1957)
William P. Rogers, attorney general (1958–1961)
Arthur E. Summerfield, postmaster general (1953–1961)
Douglas McKay, secretary of the interior (1953–1956)
Frederick A. Seaton, secretary of the interior (1956–1961)
Ezra Taft Benson, secretary of agriculture (1953–1961)
Sinclair Weeks, secretary of commerce (1953–1958)
Frederick H. Mueller, secretary of commerce (1953–1961)
Martin P. Durkin, secretary of labor (1953)
James P. Mitchell, secretary of labor (1953–1961)
Oveta Culp Hobby, secretary of health, education, and welfare (1953–1955)
Marion B. Folsom, secretary of health, education, and welfare (1955–1958)
Arthur S. Flemming, secretary of health, education, and welfare (1958–1961)
Supreme Court Appointments:
Earl Warren, chief justice (1953–1969)
John M. Harlan (1955–1971)
William J. Brennan, Jr. (1956–1990)
Charles E. Whittaker (1957–1962)
Potter Stewart (1958–1981)
Key Events
1953 Department of Health, Education, and Welfare established; hostilities halted in Korea (26 July).
1954 McCarthy–Army Hearings (22 Apr.-17 June): investigation by Sen. Joseph McCarthy into charges army was lax in ferreting out Communist spies; Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, bans racial segregation (17 May); Southeast Asia Treaty Organization formed (8 Sept.) by 8 nations.
1955 Eisenhower holds first televised news conference (19 Jan.); military advisers dispatched to South Vietnam to train army (23 Feb.); Supreme Court orders desegregation "with all deliberate speed" (31 May); black boycott of Montgomery, Ala., bus system inspired by Rosa Parks's refusal to sit at back of bus (1 Dec.).
1956 1st transatlantic cable in operation (25 Sept.); Suez Crisis: Israel invasion of Gaza Strip and the Sinai (29 Oct.) is followed by British and French attacks on Egypt; U.S. leads efforts for a cease–fire (in effect 2 Nov.).
1957 Arkansas National Guard called in (4 Sept.) to bar black students from integrating Little Rock High School; federal court orders Guardsmen removed; federal troops sent in (24 Sept.) and Arkansas National Guard put under federal command; Civil Rights Act (9 Sept.): first since Reconstruction, establishes Civil Rights Commission; Soviets launch Sputnik 1 (4 Oct.) and Sputnik 2 (3 Nov.), first artificial satellites.
1959 Alaska (3 Jan.) and Hawaii (21 Aug.) admitted as states; Communist Fidel Castro seizes power in Cuba (Jan.); St. Lawrence Seaway opens (25 Apr.); Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev engages in "Kitchen Debate" with Vice President Nixon during 10–day tour of U.S. (Sept.).
1960 U.S. population: 179,323,175 Congress approves voting rights act (21 Apr.) and civil rights act (6 May); U.S. U–2 reconnaissance plane shot down over USSR (1 May); Kennedy and Nixon on television engage in first presidential candidate debates (26 Sept., 7, 13, and 21 Oct.); Kennedy elected president (8 Nov.).

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

John Fitzgerald Kennedy, 35th President (1961–1963)
Life
Birthdate: 29 May 1917
Birthplace: Brookline, Mass.
Parents: Joseph Patrick Kennedy, Rose Fitzgerald
Religion: Roman Catholic
College Education: Harvard College
Wife: Jacqueline Lee Bouvier
Date of Marriage: 12 September 1953
Children: Caroline Bouvier, John Fitzgerald, Patrick Bouvier
Political Party: Democratic
Other Positions Held: Member, U.S. House of Representatives (1947–1953)
  U.S. Senator (1953–1960)
Date of Inauguration: 20 January 1961
End of Term: 22 November 1963 (assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald)
Date of Death: 22 November 1963
Place of Death: Dallas, Tex.
Place of Burial: Arlington, Va.
Elections
ELECTION OF 1960
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
John F. Kennedy Dem. 303 49.9%
Richard M. Nixon Rep. 219 49.6%
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
87th Congress (1961–1963)
Senate: Dem. 65; Rep. 35
House: Dem. 263; Rep. 174
88th Congress (1963–1965)
Senate: Dem. 67; Rep. 33
House: Dem. 258; Rep. 177
Vice President
Lyndon B. Johnson (1961–1963)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
Dean Rusk, secretary of state (1961–1963)
C. Douglas Dillon, secretary of the treasury (1961–1963)
Robert S. McNamara, secretary of defense (1961–1963)
Robert F. Kennedy, attorney general (1961–1963)
J. Edward Day, postmaster general (1961–1963)
John A. Gronouski, Jr., postmaster general (1963)
Stewart L. Udall, secretary of the interior (1961–1963)
Orville L. Freeman, secretary of agriculture (1961–1963)
Luther H. Hodges, secretary of commerce (1961–1963)
Arthur J. Goldberg, secretary of labor (1961–1962)
W. Willard Wirtz, secretary of labor (1962–1963)
Abraham A. Ribicoff, secretary of health, education, and welfare (1961–1962)
Anthony J. Celebrezze, secretary of health, education, and welfare (1962–1963)
Supreme Court Appointments:
Byron R. White (1962–1993)
Arthur J. Goldberg (1962–1965)
Key Events
1961 Twenty–third Amendment ratified (3 Apr.), granting District of Columbia the vote in presidential elections; Bay of Pigs Invasion (17 Apr.): failed CIA–backed invasion of Cuba by Cuban exiles; Cmdr. Alan B. Shepard in first U.S. manned suborbital space flight (5 May).
1962 Lt. Col. John Glenn is first American in orbit (20 Feb.); first U.S. communications satellite launched (July); federal troops and Mississippi National Guard assist in admitting black student James Meredith into University of Mississippi (30 Sept.–10 Oct.); Cuban missile crisis: buildup of Soviet missiles in Cuba revealed (22 Oct.), Cuba quarantined, USSR removes missiles.
1963 U.S., USSR, and Great Britain agree (25 July) on nuclear test ban treaty, barring all but underground tests; 200,000 people demonstrate for equal rights for blacks in Washington (28 Aug.); hot–line communications installed between Moscow and White House (30 Aug.); South Vietnamese president Diem assassinated (2 Nov.); Kennedy assassinated in Dallas by Lee Harvey Oswald (22 Nov.).

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

Lyndon Baines Johnson, 36th President (1963–1969)
Life
Birthdate: 27 August 1908
Birthplace: Stonewall, Tex.
Parents: Sam Ealy Johnson, Jr., Rebekah Baines
Religion: Disciples of Christ
College Education: Southwest Texas State Teachers College
First Lady: Claudia Alta ("Lady Bird") Taylor
Date of Marriage: 17 November 1934
Children: Lynda Bird, Luci Baines
Political Party: Democratic
Other Positions Held: Member, U.S. House of Representatives (1937–1949)
  U.S. Senator (1949-1961; Democratic Leader, 1953–1961)
  Vice President (1961–1963)
Date of Inauguration: 22 November 1963 (succeeded to presidency on death of John F. Kennedy)
End of Term: 20 January 1969
Date of Death: 22 January 1973
Place of Death: San Antonio, Tex.
Place of Burial: Johnson City, Tex.
Elections
ELECTION OF 1964
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
Lyndon B. Johnson Dem. 486 61.1%
Barry M. Goldwater Rep. 52 38.5%
DID NOT RUN IN ELECTION OF 1968
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
88th Congress (1963–1965)
Senate: Dem. 67; Rep. 33
House: Dem. 258; Rep. 177
89th Congress (1965–1967)
Senate: Dem. 68; Rep. 32
House: Dem. 295; Rep. 140
90th Congress (1967–1969)
Senate: Dem. 64; Rep. 36
House: Dem. 246; Rep. 187
Vice President
Hubert H. Humphrey (1965–1969)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
Dean Rusk, secretary of state (1963–1969)
C. Douglas Dillon, secretary of the treasury (1963–1965)
Henry H. Fowler, secretary of the treasury (1965–1968)
Joseph W. Barr, secretary of the treasury (1968–1969)
Robert S. McNamara, secretary of defense (1963–1968)
Clark M. Clifford, secretary of defense (1968–1969)
Robert F. Kennedy, attorney general (1963–1964)
Nicholas deB. Katzenbach, attorney general (1965–1966)
Ramsey Clark, attorney general (1967–1969)
John A. Gronouski, Jr., postmaster general (1963–1965)
Lawrence F. O'Brien, postmaster general (1965–1968)
W. Marvin Watson, postmaster general (1968–1969)
Stewart L. Udall, secretary of the interior (1963–1969)
Orville L. Freeman, secretary of agriculture (1963–1969)
Luther H. Hodges, secretary of commerce (1963–1965)
John T. Connor, secretary of commerce (1965–1967)
Alexander B. Trowbridge, secretary of commerce (1967–1968)
C. R. Smith, secretary of commerce (1968–1969)
W. Willard Wirtz, secretary of labor (1963–1969)
Anthony J. Celebrezze, secretary of health, education, and welfare (1963–1965)
John W. Gardner, secretary of health, education, and welfare (1965–1968)
Wilbur J. Cohen, secretary of health, education, and welfare (1968–1969)
Robert C. Weaver, secretary of housing and urban development (1966–1968)
Robert C. Wood, secretary of housing and urban development (1969)
Alan S. Boyd, secretary of transportation (1966–1969)
Supreme Court Appointments:
Abe Fortas (1965–1969)
Thurgood Marshall (1967–1991)
Key Events
1963 Johnson becomes fourth president to come into office upon death of a president (22 Nov.).
1964 Twenty–fourth Amendment ratified (23 Jan.), banning the poll tax in federal elections; Panamanian riots lead to severing of diplomatic relations with U.S. (9 Jan.) and U.S. offers to negotiate new canal treaty (18 Dec.); Civil Rights Act (29 June) bans discrimination; Sen. Margaret Chase Smith of Maine becomes first woman whose name is placed in nomination at convention of major political party (Republican, 15 July); Gulf of Tonkin resolution (7 Aug.) authorizes Johnson to "repel any army attack" in Vietnam and number U.S. forces increases through 1968; War on Poverty Bill passes (11 Aug.); Warren Commission report (27 Sept.) concludes Oswald was lone assassin of Kennedy; Johnson elected president (3 Nov.).
1965 Lady Bird Johnson becomes first First Lady to participate in husband's inaugural ceremony (20 Jan.); continuous bombing of North Vietnam begins (7 Feb.) by order of Johnson; Voting Rights Act (6 Aug.); establishment of Medicare and Department of Housing and Urban Development.
1966 Department of Transportation established (15 Oct.).
1967 Riots by blacks (July) put down by federal troops and National Guardsmen; Twenty–fifth Amendment ratified, dealing with presidential disability and succession (10 Feb.); Thurgood Marshall becomes first African American named a justice of the Supreme Court (13 June).
1968 Tet Offensive by North Vietnamese (30 Jan.); Martin Luther King, Jr., assassinated (4 Apr.) by James Earl Ray; peace talks on Vietnam open in Paris (10 May); Sen. Robert F. Kennedy assassinated (5 June) by Sirhan Sirhan; U.S. bombing halted in Vietnam (31 Oct.); Richard Nixon elected president (5 Nov.).

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

Richard Milhous Nixon, 37th President (1969–1974)
Life
Birthdate: 9 January 1913
Birthplace: Yorba Linda, Calif.
Parents: Francis Anthony Nixon, Hannah Milhous
Religion: Quaker
College Education: Whittier College; Duke University Law School
Wife: Thelma Catherine ("Pat") Ryan
Date of Marriage: 21 June 1940
Children: Patricia ("Tricia"), Julie
Political Party: Republican
Other Positions Held: Member, U.S. House of Representatives (1947–1951)
  U.S. Senator (1951–1953)
  Vice President (1953–1961)
Date of Inauguration: 20 January 1969
End of Term: 9 August 1974 (resigned office)
Date of Death: 22 April 1994
Place of Death: New York, N.Y.
Place of Burial: Yorba Linda, Calif.
Elections
ELECTION OF 1968
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
Richard Nixon Rep. 301 43.4%
Hubert H. Humphrey Dem. 191 42.7%
George C. Wallace Amer. Ind. 46 13.5%
ELECTION OF 1972
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
Richard Nixon Rep. 520 60.6%
George S. McGovern Dem. 17 37.5%
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
91st Congress (1969–1971)
Senate: Dem. 57; Rep. 43
House: Dem. 245; Rep. 189
92d Congress (1971–1973)
Senate: Dem. 54; Rep. 44; others 2
House: Dem. 254; Rep. 180
93d Congress (1973–1975)
Senate: Dem. 56; Rep. 42; others 2
House: Dem. 239; Rep. 192; other 1
Vice Presidents
Spiro T. Agnew (1969–1973)
Gerald R. Ford (1973–1974)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
William P. Rogers, secretary of state (1969–1973)
Henry A. Kissinger, secretary of state (1973–1974)
David M. Kennedy, secretary of the treasury (1969–1971)
John B. Connally, Jr., secretary of the treasury (1971–1972)
George P. Shultz, secretary of the treasury (1972–1974)
William E. Simon, secretary of the treasury (1974)
Melvin R. Laird, secretary of defense (1969–1973)
Elliot L. Richardson, secretary of defense (1973)
James R. Schlesinger, secretary of defense (1973–1974)
John N. Mitchell, attorney general (1969–1972)
Richard G. Kleindienst, attorney general (1972–1973)
Elliot L. Richardson, attorney general (1973)
William B. Saxbe, attorney general (1974)
Wilton M. Blount, postmaster general (1969–1971)
Walter J. Hickel, secretary of the interior (1969-1970)
Rogers C. B. Morton, secretary of the interior (1971–1974)
Clifford M. Hardin, secretary of agriculture (1969–1971)
Earl L. Butz, secretary of agriculture (1971–1974)
Maurice H. Stans, secretary of commerce (1969–1972)
Peter G. Peterson, secretary of commerce (1972–1973)
Frederick B. Dent, secretary of commerce (1973–1974)
George P. Shultz, secretary of labor (1969–1970)
James D. Hodgson, secretary of labor (1970–1973)
Peter J. Brennan, secretary of labor (1973–1974)
Robert H. Finch, secretary of health, education, and welfare (1969–1970)
Elliot L. Richardson, secretary of health, education, and welfare (1970–1973)
Caspar W. Weinberger, secretary of health, education, and welfare (1973–1974)
George W. Romney, secretary of housing and urban development (1969–1973)
James T. Lynn, secretary of housing and urban development (1973–1974)
John A. Volpe, secretary of transportation (1969–1973)
Claude S. Brinegar, secretary of transportation (1973–1974)
Supreme Court Appointments:
Warren Earl Burger, chief justice (1969–1986)
Harry A. Blackmun (1970–1994)
Lewis F. Powell, Jr. (1972–1987)
William H. Rehnquist (1972–)
Key Events
1969 Stonewall riot in Greenwich Village in New York City marks beginning of gay rights movement (27 June); Apollo 11 astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., take man's first walk on the moon (20 July).
1970 U.S. population: 203,235,298 Ohio National Guard kills 4 students at Kent State University, Ohio (4 May), following burning of ROTC building.
1917 Establishment of U.S. Postal Service removes postmaster general from Cabinet; Twenty–sixth Amendment lowers voting age to 18 (30 June); Communist China admitted to UN (25 Oct.), Nationalist China ousted; massive bombing of North Vietnam (Dec.).
1972 Nixon visits Peking (21 Feb.), Moscow (22 May.), first for a U.S. president; North Vietnamese attack in force across demilitarized zone (30 Mar.) and U.S. bombs Hanoi and Haiphong (15 Apr.); break–in of Democratic National Party Headquarters at Watergate (17 June); ABM Treaty between U.S. and USSR enters into force (3 Oct.); Nixon reelected (7 Nov.).
1973 Supreme Court rules in Roe v. Wade (Jan.) that states cannot categorically ban abortion; cease–fire effective in Vietnam (28 Jan.); China and U.S. agree (22 Feb.) to establish liaison offices in each country; Vice President Agnew resigns (10 Oct.), pleading no contest to tax–evasion charges; Gerald Ford becomes first appointed vice president (12 Oct.); ban by Middle East Oil nations on exports to U.S. (19-21 Oct., lifted 18 Mar. 1974); War Powers Act (7 Nov.) sets 60–day limit on presidential commitment of troops unless Congress authorizes continued action.
1974 House Judiciary Committee recommends 3 articles of impeachment against Nixon (24–30 July), approved by Congress; Nixon resigns (9 Aug.).

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

Gerald Rudolph Ford, 38th President (1974–1977)
Life
Birthdate: 14 July 1913
Birthplace: Omaha, Nebr.
Parents: Leslie Lynch King, Dorothy Ayer Gardner
Religion: Episcopalian
College Education: University of Michigan; Yale University Law School
Wife: Elizabeth ("Betty") Bloomer Warren
Date of Marriage: 15 October 1948
Children: Michael Gerald, John ("Jack") Gardner, Steven Meigs, Susan Elizabeth
Political Party: Republican
Other Positions Held: Member, U.S. House of Representatives (1949–1973; Republican Leader, 1965–1973)
  Vice President (1973–1974)
Date of Inauguration: 9 August 1974 (succeeded to presidency on resignation of Richard Nixon)
End of Term: 20 January 1977
  Resides in Rancho Mirage, Calif.
Elections
DEFEATED IN ELECTION OF 1976 BY JIMMY CARTER
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
93d Congress (1973–1975)
Senate: Dem. 56; Rep. 42; others 2
House: Dem. 239; Rep. 192; other 1
94th Congress (1975–1977)
Senate: Dem. 61; Rep. 37; others 2
House: Dem. 291; Rep. 144
Vice President
Nelson A. Rockefeller (1974–1977)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
Henry A. Kissinger, secretary of state (1974–1977)
William E. Simon, secretary of the treasury (1974–1977)
James R. Schlesinger, secretary of defense (1974–1975)
Donald H. Rumsfeld, secretary of defense (1975–1977)
William B. Saxbe, attorney general (1974–1975)
Edward H. Levi, attorney general (1975–1977)
Rogers C. B. Morton, secretary of the interior (1974–1975)
Stanley K. Hathaway, secretary of the interior (1975)
Thomas S. Kleppe, secretary of the interior (1975–1977)
Earl L. Butz, secretary of agriculture (1974–1976)
John A. Knebel, secretary of agriculture (1976–1977)
Frederick B. Dent, secretary of commerce (1974–1975)
Rogers C. B. Morton, secretary of commerce (1975)
Elliot L. Richardson, secretary of commerce (1976–1977)
Peter J. Brennan, secretary of labor (1974–1975)
John T. Dunlop, secretary of labor (1975–1976)
William J. Usery, Jr., secretary of labor (1976–1977)
Caspar W. Weinberger, secretary of health, education, and welfare (1974–1975)
F. David Mathews, secretary of health, education, and welfare (1975–1977)
James T. Lynn, secretary of housing and urban development (1974–1975)
Carla Anderson Hills, secretary of housing and urban development (1975–1977)
Claude S. Brinegar, secretary of transportation (1974–1975)
William T. Coleman, Jr., secretary of transportation (1975–1977)
Supreme Court Appointment:
John Paul Stevens (1975–)
Key Events
1974 Ford becomes president upon resignation of Nixon (9 Aug.); Nixon pardoned (8 Sept.).
1975 U.S. civilians evacuated from Saigon (29 Apr.), Communists overrun country; Mayaguez incident (15 May): merchant ship is rescued from Cambodians by U.S. Navy and marines; Rockefeller Commission reveals (10 June) illegal CIA operations.
1976 United States celebrates bicentennial (4 July); Viking 2 lands on Mars (3 Sept.); President Ford escapes two assassination attempts (5, 22 Sept.); Carter elected president.

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

James Earl ("Jimmy") Carter, 39th President (1977–1981)
Life
Birthdate: 1 October 1924
Birthplace: Plains, Ga.
Parents: James Earl Carter, (Bessie) Lillian Gordy
Religion: Baptist
College Education: United States Naval Academy
Wife: Rosalynn Smith
Date of Marriage: 7 July 1946
Children: John William ("Jack"), James Earl ("Chip"), Donnel Jeffrey ("Jeff"), Amy Lynn
Political Party: Democratic
Other Positions Held: Member, Georgia Senate (1963–1967)
  Governor of Georgia (1971–1975)
Date of Inauguration: 20 January 1977
End of Term: 20 January 1981
  Resides in Atlanta, Ga.
Elections
ELECTION OF 1976
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
Jimmy Carter Dem. 297 50.1%
Gerald R. Ford Rep. 240 47.9%
DEFEATED IN ELECTION OF 1980 BY RONALD REAGAN
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
95th Congress (1977–1979)
Senate: Dem. 61; Rep. 38; other 1
House: Dem. 292; Rep. 143
96th Congress (1979–1981)
Senate: Dem. 58; Rep. 41; other 1
House: Dem. 276; Rep. 157
Vice President
Walter F. Mondale (1977–1981)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
Cyrus R. Vance, secretary of state (1977–1980)
Edmund S. Muskie, secretary of state (1980–1981)
W. Michael Blumenthal, secretary of the treasury (1977–1979)
G. William Miller, secretary of the treasury (1979–1981)
Harold Brown, secretary of defense (1977–1981)
Griffin B. Bell, attorney general (1977–1979)
Benjamin R. Civiletti, attorney general (1979–1981)
Cecil D. Andrus, secretary of the interior (1977–1981)
Bob S. Bergland, secretary of agriculture (1977–1981)
Juanita M. Kreps, secretary of commerce (1977–1979)
Philip M. Klutznick, secretary of commerce (1980–1981)
Ray Marshall, secretary of labor (1977–1981)
Joseph A. Califano, Jr., secretary of health, education, and welfare (1977–1979)
Patricia Roberts Harris, secretary of health, education, and welfare (1979–1981)
Patricia Roberts Harris, secretary of housing and urban development (1977–1979)
Moon Landrieu, secretary of housing and urban development (1979–1981)
Brock Adams, secretary of transportation (1977–1979)
Neil Goldschmidt, secretary of transportation (1979–1981)
James R. Schlesinger, secretary of energy (1977–1979)
Charles W. Duncan, secretary of energy (1979–1981)
Shirley M. Hufstedler, secretary of education (1979–1981)
Supreme Court Appointments:
None
Key Events
1977 Carter holds first presidential call–in broadcast (5 Mar.); Department of Energy created (4 Aug.); Carter pardons approximately 10,000 Vietnam draft evaders.
1978 Congress votes (18 Apr.) to turn over Panama Canal to Panama in 1999; Humphrey–Hawkins Full Employment Act (15 Oct.) sets goals for reducing unemployment.
1979 Nuclear reactor accident at Three Mile Island, Pa. (28 Mar.); Department of Education and Department of Health and Human Services established (17 Oct.), superseding Department of Health, Education, and Welfare; 63 Americans taken hostage at U.S. embassy in Tehran, Iran (4 Nov.).
1980 U.S. population: 226,504,825 U.S. retaliates against Soviet invasion of Afghanistan with grain embargos (4 Jan.); military mission fails (24 Apr.) in attempt to rescue American hostages in Iran, with 8 killed and 5 wounded; Reagan elected president (4 Nov.).

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

Ronald Wilson Reagan, 40th President (1981–1989)
Life
Birthdate: 6 February 1911
Birthplace: Tampico, Ill.
Parents: John Edward ("Jack") Reagan, Nelle Clyde Wilson
Religion: Episcopalian
College Education: Eureka College
First Wife: Jane Wyman (divorced 1949)
Date of First Marriage: 24 January 1940
Children from First Marriage: Maureen Elizabeth, Michael Edward (adopted)
Second Wife: Nancy Davis
Date of Second Marriage: 4 March 1952
Children from Second Marriage: Patricia ("Patti") Ann, Ronald ("Skip") Prescott
Political Party: Republican
Other Positions Held: President, Screen Actors Guild (1947–1952; 1959–1960)
  Governor of California (1967–1975)
Date of Inauguration: 20 January 1981
End of Term: 20 January 1989
  Resides in Bel Air, Los Angeles, Calif.
Elections
ELECTION OF 1980
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
Ronald Reagan Rep. 489 50.9%
Jimmy Carter Dem. 49 41.2%
John B. Anderson Ind. 0 7.9%
ELECTION OF 1984
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
Ronald Reagan Rep. 525 59%
Walter Mondale Dem. 13 41%
INELIGIBLE TO RUN IN ELECTION OF 1988
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
97th Congress (1981–1983)
Senate: Rep. 53; Dem. 46; other 1
House: Dem. 242; Rep. 189
98th Congress (1983–1985)
Senate: Rep. 54; Dem. 46
House: Dem. 268; Rep. 167
99th Congress (1985–1987)
Senate: Rep. 53; Dem. 47
House: Dem. 253; Rep. 182
100th Congress (1987–1989)
Senate: Dem. 55; Rep. 45
House: Dem. 258; Rep. 177
Vice President
George Bush (1981–1989)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
Alexander M. Haig, secretary of state (1981–1982)
George P. Shultz, secretary of state (1982–1989)
Donald T. Regan, secretary of the treasury (1981–1985)
James A. Baker III, secretary of the treasury (1985–1988)
Nicholas F. Brady, secretary of the treasury (1988–1989)
Caspar W. Weinberger, secretary of defense (1981–1987)
Frank C. Carlucci, secretary of defense (1987–1989)
William French Smith, attorney general (1981–1985)
Edwin Meese III, attorney general (1985–1988)
Richard L. Thornburgh, attorney general (1988–1989)
James G. Watt, secretary of the interior (1981–1983)
William P. Clark, secretary of the interior (1983–1985)
Donald P. Hodel, secretary of the interior (1985–1989)
John R. Block, secretary of agriculture (1981–1986)
Richard E. Lyng, secretary of agriculture (1986–1989)
Malcolm Baldrige, secretary of commerce (1981–1987)
C. William Verity, Jr., secretary of commerce (1987–1989)
Raymond J. Donovan, secretary of labor (1981–1985)
William E. Brock III, secretary of labor (1985–1987)
Ann D. McLaughlin, secretary of labor (1987–1989)
Samuel R. Pierce, Jr., secretary of housing and urban development (1981–1989)
Andrew L. Lewis, secretary of transportation (1981–1983)
Elizabeth H. Dole, secretary of transportation (1983–1987)
James H. Burnley IV, secretary of transportation (1987–1989)
James B. Edwards, secretary of energy (1981–1982)
Donald P. Hodel, secretary of energy (1982–1985)
John S. Herrington, secretary of energy (1985–1989)
Terrel H. Bell, secretary of education (1981–1985)
William J. Bennett, secretary of education (1985–1988)
Lauro F. Cavazos, secretary of education (1988–1989)
Richard S. Schweiker, secretary of health and human services (1981–1983)
Margaret M. Heckler, secretary of health and human services (1983–1985)
Otis R. Bowen, secretary of health and human services (1985–1989)
Supreme Court Appointments:
Sandra Day O'Connor (1981–)
William H. Rehnquist, chief justice (1986–) (promoted from associate justice)
Antonin Scalia (1986–)
Anthony M. Kennedy (1988–)
Key Events
1981 American hostages released in Iran on day of Reagan's inauguration (20 Jan.); Reagan survives assassination attempt (30 Mar.); space shuttle Columbia launched, the first reusable spacecraft (12 Apr.); Reagan appoints Sandra Day O'Connor first woman justice of the Supreme Court (7 July); largest tax cut in nation's history passes (29 July); federal air traffic controllers strike and are dismissed by Reagan (5 Aug.).
1982 Equal Rights Amendment defeated after 10 years without sufficient ratifications.
1983 U.S. peacekeeping force in Lebanon attacked at marine headquarters with truck bomb (23 Oct.); U.S. invades Grenada (25 Oct.).
1984 Democrat Geraldine Ferraro 1st woman chosen as vice presidential candidate for major political party; Reagan reelected president (6 Nov.).
1985 $1.5 million appropriated (Mar.) for development of MX missile; hijackers seize Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro (7 Oct.).
1986 Space shuttle Challenger explodes (28 Jan.) shortly after takeoff, killing 7 aboard; U.S. war planes strike Libya in retaliation for Libyan bombing of West Berlin disco (5 Apr.); Congress passes comprehensive Tax Reform Act (Sept.); U.S. and USSR reach agreement on worldwide ban of medium–range missiles (18 Sept.); Iran–Contra scandal emerges (3 Nov.).
1987 First trillion–dollar U.S. budget; 37 sailors killed aboard USS Stark by Iraqi missile in Persian Gulf (27 May); Congressional hearings into Iran–Contra scandal (July): Col. Oliver North and Adm. John Poindexter involved in sale of arms to Iran and use of profits to support rebels in Nicaragua; Wall Street crashes (19 Oct.); U.S. and USSR sign INF Treaty dismantling some missiles.
1988 Gen. Manuel Noriega indicted in Florida (4 Feb.) for drug trafficking; more than 1 million illegal aliens apply for amnesty (4 May); Bush elected president (8 Nov.).

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

George Herbert Walker Bush, 41st President (1989–1993)
Life
Birthdate: 12 June 1924
Birthplace: Milton, Mass.
Parents: Prescott Sheldon Bush, Dorothy Walker
Religion: Episcopalian
College Education: Yale College
Wife: Barbara Pierce
Date of Marriage: 6 January 1945
Children: George Walker, Robin, John Ellis ("Jeb"), Neil Mallon, Marvin Pierce, Dorothy Pierce
Political Party: Republican
Other Positions Held: Member, U.S. House of Representatives (1967–1971)
  Ambassador to United Nations (1971–1973)
  Chairman, Republican National Committee (1973–1974)
  Chief U.S. Liaison, People's Republic of China (1974–1975)
  Director, Central Intelligence Agency (1976–1977)
  Vice President (1981–1989)
Date of Inauguration: 20 January 1989
End of Term: 20 January 1993
  Resides in Houston, Tex.
Elections
ELECTION OF 1988
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
George Bush Rep. 426 53.4%
Michael S. Dukakis Dem. 111 45.6%
DEFEATED IN ELECTION OF 1992 BY BILL CLINTON
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
101st Congress (1989–1991)
Senate: Dem. 55; Rep. 45
House: Dem. 260; Rep. 175
102d Congress (1991–1993)
Senate: Dem. 56; Rep. 44
House: Dem. 267; Rep. 167; other
Vice President
J. Danforth ("Dan") Quayle (1989–1993)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
James A. Baker III, secretary of state (1989–1992)
Lawrence S. Eagleburger, secretary of state (1992–1993)
Nicholas F. Brady, secretary of the treasury (1989–1993)
Richard B. Cheney, secretary of defense (1989–1993)
Richard L. Thornburgh, attorney general (1989–1991)
William Barr, attorney general (1991–1993)
Manuel Lujan, Jr., secretary of the interior (1989–1993)
Clayton K. Yeutter, secretary of agriculture (1989–1991)
Edward R. Madigan, secretary of agriculture (1991–1993)
Robert A. Mosbacher, secretary of commerce (1989–1992)
Barbara A. Franklin, secretary of commerce (1992–1993)
Elizabeth H. Dole, secretary of labor (1989–1991)
Lynn Martin, secretary of labor (1991–1993)
Jack F. Kemp, secretary of housing and urban development (1989–1993)
Samuel K. Skinner, secretary of transportation (1989–1992)
Andrew H. Card, secretary of transportation (1992–1993)
James Watkins, secretary of energy (1989–1993)
Lauro F. Cavazos, secretary of education (1989–1990)
Lamar Alexander, secretary of education (1991–1993)
Louis W. Sullivan, secretary of health and human services (1989–1993)
Edward J. Derwinski, secretary of veterans affairs (1989–1992)
Supreme Court Appointments:
David H. Souter (1990–)
Clarence Thomas (1991–)
Key Events
1989 Largest oil spill in U.S. history (24 Mar.) from the Exxon Valdez in Prince Edward Sound; Col. Oliver North convicted of obstruction of Congress in Iran–Contra scandal (4 May); legislation passes (9 Aug.) intended to rescue savings and loan industry; 20,000 U.S. troops occupy Panama to apprehend Noriega (20 Dec.–3 Jan. 1990); Department of Veterans Affairs established; while flying in Air Force One, Bush uses a fax machine to transmit a veto message to Congress.
1990 U.S. population: 248,709,873 Iraq invades Kuwait (2 Aug.); UN coalition forces including 450,000 U.S. troops stationed in Saudi Arabia to prevent subsequent Iraqi invasion; Clean Air Act passes (15 Nov.): comprehensive plan to reduce 50% of annual level of emissions.
1991 Aerial bombing of Iraq begins (17 Jan.); coalition defeats Iraq in ground war (24–27 Feb.); Iraq accepts UN cease–fire terms (3 Mar.); U.S. and USSR sign START I Treaty; dissolution of Soviet Union (25 Dec.).
1992 An all–white Los Angeles jury acquits 4 L.A. police officers of wrongdoing (29 Apr.) in 1991 beating of Rodney King, a black man, provoking widespread riots; Americans with Disabilities Act takes effect; Clinton elected president (3 Nov.); U.S. troops provide humanitarian aid to famine–stricken Somalia (Dec.–Jan. 1993); Bush pardons former Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger and other high–level Reagan administration Iran–Contra scandal figures (24 Dec.); Twenty–seventh Amendment fixes congressional salaries during each term.

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

William Jefferson Clinton, 42nd President (1993–2001)
Life
Birthdate: 19 August 1946
Birthplace: Hope, Ark.
Parents: William Jefferson Blythe 3d, Virginia Cassidy
Religion: Baptist
College Education: Georgetown University; Rhodes Scholar, Oxford University, England; Yale University Law School
Wife: Hillary Diane Rodham
Date of Marriage: 11 October 1975
Child: Chelsea
Political Party: Democratic
Other Positions Held: Law Professor, University of Arkansas (1973–1976)
  Attorney General of Arkansas (1977–1979)
  Governor of Arkansas (1979–1981; 1983–1992)
Date of Inauguration: 20 January 1993
Acquittal of Impeachment Charges: 12 February 1999
End of term: 20 January 2001
  Resides in Chappaqua, New York
Elections
ELECTION OF 1992
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
Bill Clinton Dem. 370 43%
George Bush Rep. 168 37%
H. Ross Perot Ind. 0 19%
ELECTION OF 1996
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
Bill Clinton Dem. 379 49%
Robert J. Dole Rep. 159 41%
H. Ross Perot Reform 0 8%
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
103d Congress (1993–1995)
Senate: Dem. 56; Rep. 44
House: Dem. 258; Rep. 176; other 1
104th Congress (1995–1997)
Senate: Rep. 52; Dem. 48
House: Rep. 230; Dem. 204; other 1
105th Congress (1997–)
Senate: Rep. 55; Dem. 45
House: Rep. 226; Dem. 208; other 1
106th Congress (1999–2001)
Senate: Rep. 54; Dem. 46
House: Rep. 222; Dem. 208; other 1
Vice President
Albert A. Gore, Jr. (1993–2001)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
Warren M. Christopher, secretary of state (1993–1997)
Madeleine K. Albright, secretary of state (1997–2001)
Lloyd M. Bentsen, Jr., secretary of the treasury (1993–1994)
Robert E. Rubin, secretary of the treasury (1995–2001)
Les Aspin, secretary of defense (1993–1994)
William Perry, secretary of defense (1994–1997)
William S. Cohen, secretary of defense (1997–2001)
Janet Reno, attorney general (1993–2001)
Bruce Babbitt, secretary of the interior (1993–2001)
Mike Espy, secretary of agriculture (1993–1994)
Daniel R. Glickman, secretary of agriculture (1995-)
Ronald H. Brown, secretary of commerce (1993–1996)
Mickey Kantor, secretary of commerce (1996–1997)
William M. Daley, secretary of commerce (1997–2000)
Norman Y. Mineta, secretary of commerce (2000–2001)
Robert B. Reich, secretary of labor (1993–1997)
Alexis Herman, secretary of labor (1997–2001)
Donna E. Shalala, secretary of health and human services (1993–2001)
Henry G. Cisneros, secretary of housing and urban development (1993–1997)
Andrew Cuomo, secretary of housing and urban development (1997–2001)
Federico F. Peña, secretary of transportation (1993–1997)
Rodney E. Slater, secretary of transportation (1997–2001)
Hazel R. O'Leary, secretary of energy (1993–1997)
Federico F. Peña, secretary of energy (1997–1998)
William Richardson, secretary of energy (1998–2001)
Richard W. Riley, secretary of education (1993–2001)
Jesse Brown, secretary of veterans affairs (1993–1998)
Togo D. West, Jr., secretary of veterans affairs (1998–2001)
Supreme Court Appointments
Ruth Bader Ginsberg (1993–)
Stephen G. Breyer (1994–)
Key Events
1993 Clinton invites E–mail messages from the public (Feb.); Congress approves North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with Canada and Mexico, removing some protectionist trade measures (17–21 Nov.).
1994 Clinton health care reform plans rejected by Congress; in midterm elections Republicans win control of both houses of Congress for first time in forty years (9 Nov.).
1995 U.S. restores full diplomatic relations with Vietnam; NATO peacekeeping forces help maintain cease–fire in war–stricken Bosnia; two blocks of Pennsylvania Avenue adjoining the White House closed to vehicular traffic (20 May); congressional Whitewater hearings investigate possible wrongdoing by Bill and Hillary Clinton in business deal involving a failed Arkansas savings–and–loan.
1996 Secretary of Commerce Ronald H. Brown and 32 others killed in an airplane crash near Dubrovnik, Croatia (3 Apr.); Clinton signs welfare reform legislation (23 Aug.); Clinton reelected president (5 Nov.).
1997 Clinton inaugurated (20 Jan.)
1998 Clinton is first elected president impeached by the House of Representatives (19 Dec.).
1999 Clinton acquitted by the United States Senate in impeachment trial (12 Feb.).
2000 George W. Bush elected president over Vice President Al Gore (7 Nov.).
2001 United States Supreme Court disbars Clinton, prohibiting him from arguing in front of the Court (1 Oct.).

Appendix B Table of Biographical, Political, and Historical Data

George Walker Bush, 43rd President (2001–)
Life
Birthdate: 6 July 1946
Birthplace: New Haven, Conn.
Parents: George Herbert Walker Bush, Barbara Pierce
Religion: Methodist
College Education: Yale University; Harvard Business School
Wife: Laura Welsh Bush
Date of Marriage: 5 Nov. 1977
Children: Barbara and Jenna (twins)
Political Party: Republican
Other Positions Held: Oil company executive (1976–1988)
  Part-owner, Texas Rangers baseball club (1989–1993)
  Governor of Texas (1995–2001)
Date of inauguration: 20 January 2001
  Resides in Washington, D.C.
Elections
ELECTION OF 2000
Candidate Party Electoral Vote Pop. Vote
George W. Bush Republican 271 50,455,156
Albert A. Gore, Jr. Democrat 269 50,992,335
POLITICAL COMPOSITION OF CONGRESS
107th Congress (2001–)
Senate: Dem. 50; Rep. 49 other 1
House: Rep. 222 ; Dem. 211; other 1
Vice President
Richard Cheney (2001–)
Appointments
Cabinet Members:
Colin Powell, secretary of state (2001–)
Paul H. O'Neill, secretary of the treasury (2001–)
Donald H. Rumsfeld, secretary of defense (2001–)
John Ashcroft, attorney general (2001–)
Gale A. Norton, secretary of the interior (2001–)
Ann M. Veneman, secretary of agriculture (2001–)
Donald Evans, secretary of commerce (2001–)
Elaine Chao, secretary of labor (2001–)
Tommy G. Thompson, secretary of health and human services (2001–)
Melquiades Rafael Martinez, secretary of housing and urban development (2001–)
Norman Y. Mineta, secretary of transportation (2001–)
Spencer Abraham, secretary of energy (2001–)
Roderick Paige, secretary of education (2001–)
Anthony J. Principi, secretary of veterans affairs (2001–)
Supreme Court Appointments
None through June 2002
Key Events
2001 New York City and Washington, D.C., attacked by hijacked aircraft, destroying the World Trade Center and damaging the Pentagon, killing thousands (11 Sept.); Bush targets the Al Qaida ("The Base") terrorist network led by Saudi expatriate Osama Bin Laden as the mastermind behind the attacks; United States and Britain attack Afghanistan in an effort to destroy the Al Qaida network and the ruling Taliban regime in Afghanistan.
2002 During the State of the Union address (29 Jan.) Bush states that the fight against terrorism will extend globally. After terrorism and backlash in Israel, Bush tells Israeli prime minister Ariel Sharon to withdraw armed forces from Palestinian cities.


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